Agricultural Science

Agriculture Terms and Definitions A to D

Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 24th January, 2019 @ 19:11:12 PM

Agricultural terms:

Agricultural science as a subject comes with a variety of technical terms. Understanding the definitions and meanings of this terms will make this subject a little easier for you.

Below are the various agricutural term from letters "A - D"

Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0. Acre: A parcel of land, containing 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet. 

Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man. Both a “way of life” and a “means of life” for the people involved in this industry. 

Agriculture Extension Service: Cooperative (Federal, State, and County) agency doing research and education for rural and urban producer and consumer groups, located in each county with specialist personnel for each particular area. 

Agronomy: The science of crop production and soil management. 

Alfalfa: A valuable leguminous crop for forage or hay used in livestock. 

Animal Unit: A unit of measurement of livestock, the equivalent of one mature cow weighing 1,000 lbs. The measure is used in making comparisons of feed consumption. Five mature ewes a also are considered an animal unit. 

Annual: A plant that completes its life cycle from seed to plant, flower, and new seed in 1 year or less. Apiary: Colonies of bees in hives and other beekeeping equipment for the production of honey. 

Artificial Insemination: The mechanical injection of male semen into the womb of the female with a special syringe-like apparatus. The process begins with the collection of semen from the male. This method is used extensively in dairy husbandry. 

Auger: Spiral device on a shaft used to move grain through a tube. 

Avian: Pertaining to poultry and/or fowl. Balance Ration: A ration which furnishes all the necessary nutrients in the proportions and amounts needed by the animal for normal functioning and growth. 

Bloating: Abnormal swelling of the abdomen of livestock, caused by excessive gas formation which can result in death.

Boar: A breeding male hog, any age. Breed: A group of animals descended from common ancestry and possessing certain inherited characteristics which distinguish it from any other group. When matings within the breed are made, these characteristics are transmitted to the offspring in a uniform and predictable manner. 

Breeds of Beef Cattle: English Origin: Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn European Origin: Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Simmental Asian Origin: Brahma. United States Developed: Brangus, Beefmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Red Angus. Broadcasting: Random scattering of seeds over the surface of the ground. If the seed is to be covered, this is done as a separate operation, usually with a spike-tooth harrow. 

Broiler: A chicken of either sex about 7 weeks of age. 2 Bushel: A unit of dry measure (1 cubic foot) for grain, fruit, etc., equivalent to 8 gallons of liquid. Weight varies with the density/bulk of the commodity. Example: Oats weigh 32 lbs. Per bu.; barley, 46 lbs. Per bu.; and corn, 56 lbs,. Per bu. 

Calf: Young (up to yearling or sexual maturity) animal of the bovine species. 

Cash Crop: Any crop that is sold off the farm to yield ready cash.

Certified Seed: Seed grown from pure stock which meets the standards of certifying agency (usually a state government agency). Certification is based on germination, freedom from weeds and disease, and trueness to variety. 

Complete Fertilizer: A fertilizer containing the three macro nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium) in sufficient amounts to sustain plant growth. 

Compost: Organic residues, or a mixture of organic residues and soil which have been piled, moistened, and allowed to undergo biological decomposition. Mineral fertilizers are sometimes added. 

Confinement: Livestock kept in “dry-lot” for maximum year-round production. Facilities may be partial or complete solid floored and enclosed/covered. 

Controlled Lighting: Artificial lighting of poultry housing. Increasing or decreasing the number of hours of light during the day will control sexual maturity, fertility, and molt. 

Cooperative: An organization formed for the purpose of production and marketing of goods or products owned collectively by members who share in the benefits. Most common examples in agriculture are canneries and creameries. 

Crop Rotation: More or less regular recurrent succession of different crops on the same land for the purpose of maintaining good yields. 

CWT: Hundredweight or 100 pounds. Double Crop: Two different crops grown on the same area in one growing season. 

Drainage: The removal of excess surface water or excess water from within the soil by means of surface or sub-surface drains. 

Drilling: The process of opening the soil to receive the seed, planting the seed and covering it in a single operation. 

Dry Cow: A cow that is not producing milk, the period before the next calving and lactation. 

Dry Land Farming: The practice of crop production without irrigation.

Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

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