Basic Science

Uniqueness of Man: Unique characteristics of man

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 12th March, 2019 @ 09:48 AM

Topics in Basic Science

What is science? Qualities of a scientist Resources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton

Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?

  • A. Anthrax

  • B. Lawnmower Disease

  • C. Onchocerciasis

  • D. Devil's Crunch

  • E. Trypanosomiasis

  • F. Tularemia

The vector for yellow fever is _____.

  • A. Aedes Mosquito

  • B. Female Anopheles Mosquito

  • C. Plasmodium

  • D. Flavivirus

  • E. Black Fly

  • F. Bacillus Anthracis

The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.

  • A. 12

  • B. 14

  • C. 16

  • D. 18

  • E. 20

  • F. 22

Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?

  • A. Stimulants

  • B. Depressants

  • C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives

  • D. Hallucinogens

  • E. Anabolic Steroids

  • F. Cannabinoids

Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?

  • A. Drugs can be inhaled

  • B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream 

  • C. Drugs can be eaten

  • D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups

  • E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue

  • F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Meaning of Man's Uniqueness:

The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism. In this regard, human beings are considered as animals according to science. However, humans are distinctively higher animals when compared to other animals.

Please read on the general characteristics of living organisms here.

Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.

Please read on primates and their characteristics here.

Note: The term 'man' as used in this article refers to all human beings.


Unique Characteristics of Man

The unique characteristics of man can simply be attributed to those features that are exclusively present on humans. These unique features or characteristics include:

1. Highly developed brain

Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed.

The highly developed brain of humans is the biggest factor that makes man unique from every other organism on earth.

Below is an image of the human brain showing the gyri and sulci respectively:
Human Brain Gyri and Sulci - Len Academy

Please read on an introduction to the human brain here.

According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.

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2. Uprightness and Bipedalism

Bipedalism is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs. Animals that move in this manner via their two feet are referred to as biped.

Humans are the only primates that can efficiently move in an upright manner and with their two feet. Although apes and baboons can exhibit a biped movement in an upright manner, they expend more energy and as a result, such biped movement will not be their preferred choice of locomotion.

The choice of movement in baboons is via brachiation. Think of brachiation as a specialized form of movement whereby animals swing from one tree branch (or projection) to another.

Brachiation may also be referred to as arm swinging.


3. Ability to advance in language and speech

The presence of mouth, tongue, lips and larynx (or voice box) in connection with the brain is responsible for human advancement in speech and language.

Humans are the only animals that can speak a variety of languages while also manipulating their voice into music production. This feature of voice manipulation makes man unique from all other animals.

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4. Great flexibility of the shoulder Joint

The anatomical alignment of the muscles and bones of the shoulders in humans is only unique to humans.

Please read on all bones of the human skeleton here.

Unlike monkeys and chimpanzee whose shoulders are best suited for hanging on trees, the human shoulder (which is the most flexible joint in the human body) is better adapted for throwing, hunting, catching, shooting and a complete movement of the upper limbs. This advancement in structure and function of the human shoulders have given them an excellent survival and building skills.

Man is the greatest hunter on earth and one attribute to this fact is via the great flexibility and composition of their shoulder joint and muscles.

You can read various amazing facts in biology here.


5. Nature of hands and thumbs

Although humans and other primates have got opposable thumbs, both are not the same. The difference between both thumbs (humans and other primates) is due to it's exact size and location.

Unlike other primates, humans have smaller hands with an excellently positioned thumb. In addition to this, all the fingers (in humans) are richly innervated (that is; supplied with nerve), even to their tips. This is the very reason why humans can uniquely engage in fine motor skills like sewing, writing and drawing.

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6. Sweat and Glands

Humans are not the only animals that possess sweat glands but the fact remains that theirs are unique from other animals, including apes and horses. The difference in the sweat glands of humans is as result of its composition.

The sweat glands of humans secrete mainly water, in addition to salt: that is; sodium ion (Na+) and chlorine ion (Cl-).

Based on these secretions, the sweat of humans is similar to a salt solution.

Please read on salts and types of salt in chemistry here.

The sweat glands of other animals comprises of a mixture of water, lipids, fats and protein. In short, these animals sweat differently from humans.

You can read more on mixtures here.


7. Intelligence

Intelligence may be defined as the ability to apply knowledge into manipulating one's environment to their benefit. It can also be defined as a general cognitive problem-solving skills. You can think of it (intelligence) as the 'skilled use of reason'.

Please read on intelligent and motivational quotes for students here.

We see the application of human intelligence in the development of the internet, automobiles, spaceships, buildings, computers and so on.

You can read on the internet of things here.

Except humans, no other animal can achieve these feats of intelligence. Human intelligence changes over time with age. Also, it can be inherited.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Please read on what students are expected to know here.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

MA = Mental age

CA = Chronological age

IQ above 100 = Brilliance

IQ that equals 100 = Average

IQ below 100 = Below Average

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

According to scientific research, if the first tear drop comes from the right eye, it’s tears of joy. If it comes from the left eye, then it is as a result of pain

Dentistry is the oldest profession in the world. This is considered true because a research conducted by the University of Bologna, Italy on a 14,000-year-old skull found that one rotten tooth in the jaw had been deliberately scoured and scraped with a dental tool

Scientific research has it that the human nose can distinguish more than a trillion different odors

Tiger fur and skin - Len Academy

Tigers have striped fur. So also is their skin

Red-Billed Quelea - Len Academy

The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion

Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Notable points in Basic Science

We have six classes of food. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Proteins

  3. Fats and Oils

  4. Vitamins

  5. Mineral Salts

  6. Water

In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.

Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.

As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

Please read more on food here

The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.

Matter is composed of particles which can be:

  1. Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).

  2. Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).

  3. Completely separated (as seen in gases).

The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.

An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.

You can read on the concept of matter here

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

  • IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

  • MA = Mental age

  • CA = Chronological age

  • IQ above 100 = Brilliance

  • IQ that equals 100 = Average

  • IQ below 100 = Below Average