Topics in Basic ScienceLen Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.
Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.
_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
A. Waste collecting and processing
B. Waste processing and collecting
C. Waste recycling and control
D. Waste control and recycling
E. Waste treatment
F. Waste Management
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?
A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body
B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass
C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth
D. Weight is a function of gravity
E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units
F. None of the above
Which of the following statement is false concerning matter?
A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space
B. Air is an example of matter
C. Plasma is a state of matter
D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo
E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter
F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes
Which of the following is not matter?
F. None of the above
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
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The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.
Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.
Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.
Note: Man as used in this article will refer to all human beings.
The unique characteristics of man can simply be attributed to those features that are exclusively present on humans. These unique features or characteristics include:
Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed.
The highly developed brains of humans is the biggest factor that makes man unique from every other organism on earth.
Below is an image of the human brain showing the gyri and sulci:
According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.
Bipedalism is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs. Animals that move in this manner via their two feet are referred to as biped.>
Humans are the only primates that can efficiently move in an upright manner and with their two feet. Although apes and baboons can exhibit a biped movement in an upright manner, they expend more energy and as a result, such biped movement will not be their preferred choice of locomotion.
Note: The choice of movement in baboons is via brachiation.
Think of brachiation as a specialized form of movement whereby animals swing from one tree branch (or projection) to another.
Brachiation may also be referred to as arm swinging.
The presence of mouth, tongue, lips and larynx (or voice box) in connection with the brain is responsible for human advancement in speech and language.
Humans are the only animals that can speak a variety of languages while also manipulating their voice into music production.
This feature of voice manipulation makes man unique from all other animals.
The anatomical alignment of the muscles and bones of the shoulders in humans is only unique to humans.
Unlike monkeys and chimpanzee whose shoulders are best suited for hanging on trees, the human shoulder (which is the most flexible joint in the human body) is better adapted for throwing, hunting, catching, shooting and a complete movement of the upper limbs. This advancement in structure and function of the human shoulders have given them an excellent survival and building skills.
Man is the greatest hunter on earth and one attribute to this fact is via the great flexibility and composition of their shoulder joint and muscles.
Although humans and other primates have got opposable thumbs, both are not the same. The difference between both thumbs (humans and other primates) is due to it's exact size and location.
Unlike other primates, humans have smaller hands with an excellently positioned thumb. In addition to this, all the fingers (in humans) are richly innervated (that is; supplied with nerve), even to their tips. This is the very reason why humans can uniquely engage in fine motor skills like sewing, writing and drawing.
Humans are not the only animals that possess sweat glands but the fact remains that theirs are unique from other animals, including apes and horses. The difference in the sweat glands of humans is as result of its composition.
The sweat glands of humans secrete mainly water, in addition to salt: that is; sodium ion (Na+) and chlorine ion (Cl-).
Based on these secretions, the sweat of humans is similar to a salt solution.
Note: The sweat glands of other animals comprises of a mixture of water, lipids, fats and protein. In short, these animals sweat differently from humans.
Intelligence may be defined as the ability to apply knowledge into manipulating one's environment for their benefit. It can also be defined as a general cognitive problem-solving skills. You can think of it (intelligence) as the "skilled use of reason".
We see the application of human intelligence in the development of the internet, automobiles, spaceships, buildings, computers and so on.
Note: Except humans, no other animal can achieve these feats of intelligence. Human Intelligence changes over time with age and can be inherited.
An Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things
🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges
Rain water contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on Erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on Vectors of Diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.
We have four types of polysaccharides namely:
Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.
Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.
Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.
Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.
Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.