Basic Science

Carbohydrates and Sugars

Olawunmi Omosanya - Sun, 17th March, 2019 @ 22:03: PM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. plants
  2. sun
  3. food
  4. water
  5. air
  6. earth

ANSWER is sun

Without the sun, there will be no life on earth. Even plants require the sun to manufacture their food. The mode of nutrition through which organisms manufacture their own food is termed autotrophic nutrition. Please read on autotrophic nutrition here.

Note: Every other form of energy directly or indirectly comes from the sun. 

Basic Science

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.


ANSWER is false

The speed of wind is measured with an anemometer  while the direction of wind is measured with a wind vane

Basic Science

QUESTION: The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

ANSWER is: Protein

A nutrient is any substance that contains the nourishment essential for life. Nutrients are present in all the six classes of food. The classes of food are Carbohydrate, Protein, Fats and Oil, Vitamins, Mineral Salts and Water.

Note: The liver is a very rich source of protein. Other sources of protein are fish, egg and meat.

What is the common nutrient found in liver and beans?
A. fats
B. vitamins
C. carbohydrates
D. Proteins

Read more

Basic Science

Concept of food:

Food is anything that is ingested by living organisms in order to stay alive. It can take different forms (solid, semi solid and liquid). The food we eat are usually derived from plants and animals. Food has a variety of functions but understanding the classes of food will aid you to better understand their functions.

We have six classes of food namely:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Mineral salts
  • Water.

Now, let's talk a bit on carbohydrates


What are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are classes of food composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) in the ratio of 1:2:1. They are your body's first choice for generating the energy that helps you go about your daily activities. (Fats and Proteins can also be sources of energy but are aren't your body's first choice). All carbohydrates are sugars. When you eat rice, yam or cassava, you are essentially eating sugars. These sugars can be put into three categories. They are:


Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are actually what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates. There are four major types of polysaccharides namely:

  • Starch
  • Glycogen
  • Chitin
  • Cellulose.

Note: Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam. Glycogen can be found in the liver as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules. Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton while cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall.

Polysaccharides have a general formula of Cx(H2O)y where x is always a large number between 200 and 2500. They are composed of repeating units of another type of sugar called monosaccharides or simple sugars.

Note: Cellulose is not digested in humans when eaten.



Also called simple sugars, they are the final broken down products of polysaccharides. They consist of one sugar unit and cannot be further broken down. Glucose, Galactose and Fructose are all examples of simple sugars. After we had eaten starch (a polysaccharide), various enzymes produced by our bodily organs will break down the starch, first into a double sugar (disaccharide), an then finally into monosaccharides. This breakdown process is called digestion. It is these monosaccharides that are absorbed into our blood stream and finally utilized for energy production. Monosaccharides generally have a chemical formula of C6H12O6. 

NoteGlucose is the main source of energy generation in the body cells. Fructose is involved in the body's metabolism while Galactose is useful in erythrocytes or red blood cells.



They are composed of two monosaccharides joined together and are also called double sugars. They are often added as sweeteners to food, for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide we often add to sweeten our tea. Maltose is another disaccharide often used to make our malt drinks, chocolates and candies. The breast milk contains the disaccharide lactose which is very vital for infants. Disaccharides are non essential nutrients (meaning we can live without them).

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that makes up these double sugars.

Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose 

Amazing facts in Basic Science


All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.

Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton

Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

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