Topics in BiologyTropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
Have you ever wondered why on a sunny day you drink a lot of water and tend to produce lesser urine? On the contrary, think about how likely you will produce more urine on a cold day and drink less water too. This is so because some processes are constantly ongoing inside your body and they are necessary for your survival.
Now, let's imagine that someone has a fever. His or her temperature will be abnormally high as a result of the fever. The person may sweat abnormally or even urinate abnormally. On your part, you will suspect that some processes are not working right inside the person.
Medically speaking, for a person to be physiologically healthy, the conditions and processes within his or her body must be carefully and properly controlled. This internal control is what homeostasis entails.
Homeostasis can be defined as the regulation and maintenance of a constant (or nearly constant) internal environment.
Recall that your environment comprises of everything that surrounds you; for instance air, water, your phone, shoes and anything around you right now. This concept of environment is your external environment.
In physiology, we have another concept of environment called the internal environment; and it is this environment that the bodily homeostatic organs constantly regulate to it's best optimum conditions.
Now let's think of it this way: If for instance, the external environment is very dirty and unhealthy (from lack of environmental sanitation, cleanliness and healthy living), children will suffer from illnesses and diseases like cholera, typhoid and dysentery. This is true because the respective causative organisms (of such diseases) will find their way into the child's body systems and invariably, the environment inside their body (internal environment).
As living organisms, human beings are composed of trillions of cells. These cells aren't just stacked upon one another (like a pack of cards); instead, they are separated by a fluid filled space.
The above diagram illustrates the various fluids seen within and around the cell
The fluid filled space present outside all the cells of any multi-cellular organism is termed the Extracellular fluid (or ECF).
Note: Blood plasma present inside the blood vessels (that is, arteries, veins and capillaries) is a component of the ECF because it is present outside the body cells. The same is true for the interstitial fluid which is also another component of the ECF.
The ECF accounts for about 35% (one-third) of the Total Body Water (TBW) in healthy adults.
Similarly, inside each of the cells is another kind of fluid called the Intracellular Fluid or ICF.
The ICF comprises of the cytoplasm of each cell's organelle which contains water, proteins and electrolytes.
About 65% (two-third) of the TBW is ICF. For this reason, the volume of ICF is greater than that of ECF with regards to the Total Body Water.
The TBW accounts for about 65% of the body weight of an average man although this value will vary with age. For instance, children will have a higher percentage of TBW value while that of the aged will be lower.
The above explanations on TBW affirms that humans are composed more of water (liquid) than solids.
The two compartments accounting for the TBW are the ICF and ECF respectively; and both make up the internal environment. It is these internal environments that are regulated via homeostasis.
Understand that the concentration of substances within the internal environment must be at a very narrow range, else the organism becomes sick and may eventually die. Most of the medical drugs function by restoring the internal environment to it's normal composition and pH.
In humans, homeostasis is achieved via two systems; these are:
Nervous System: It comprises of the brain and spinal cord.
Please read an introduction to the human brain Man here.
Endocrine System: It has every thing to do with hormones. The pituitary gland is serves as the master endocrine gland. This implies that it regulates the homeostatic functions of other endocrine glands (or glands that produces hormones).
For now, think of endocrine glands as the producers of hormones.
These two systems (nervous and endocrine systems) coordinates all homeostatic processes by regulating the respective homeostatic organs in the body.
Below are some homeostatic organs alongside a summary of their homeostatic functions:
Hypothalamus: It regulates the body temperature, sleep, appetite and thirst.
Kidneys: It regulates water, salts and electrolytes through the formation and elimination of urine.
Skin: Regulates water, salts and electrolytes via sweat formation.
Liver: It regulates the storage of glucose, storage of blood, production of bile, breakdown of proteins, cleansing of the body and much more.
Pancreas: It regulates blood glucose and glycogen.
Lungs: Regulates oxygen and carbon(IV)oxide intake through breathing.
The diagram below shows the various homeostatic organs and their locations.
The nervous and endocrine systems regulate the above homeostatic organs through a mechanism called the negative feedback mechanism.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species
99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally
When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.
When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process
Frogs drink water through their skin
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere