Pressure Group in Nigeria - Types and Examples

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 21st March, 2019 @ 3:58 PM

Topics in Government

Political power: Sources of political power Concept of power in government Functions of the executive arm of government Facts on Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy One-party system explained with its advantages and disadvantages What is Democracy? Definitions of Democracy Types of Government Functions of the Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System What are pressure groups? Types of pressure group Characteristics of Pressure Group Types of Constitution Scope of Government Characteristics of Government Importance of Government One-party system explained with its types and characteristics

Academic Questions in Government

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Which of the following is not a function of government?

  • A. Government provides all the jobs in the country they govern

  • B. Government empowers the less privilege and the physically challenged

  • C. Government provides a support system for the aged

  • D. Government provides infrastructure for her citizens

  • E. Government maintains external relations with other countries

  • F. Government generates revenue for the country they govern

In government, a type of one-party system whereby a single party is officially and legally recognized in a country or state is termed a _____.

  • A. Hegemonic Party

  • B. Pre-Dominant Party

  • C. Dominant Party

  • D. True Single-State

  • E. Unique-Ordered State

  • F. State-Exclusive Party

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the multi-party system?

  • A. There is an existence of several parties differing in principles and fundamentals.

  • B. The political parties are legally recognized.

  • C. It is democratic in nature.

  • D. Among the various parties, only one dominates the political landscape.

  • E. Some of the opposition parties can become politically insignificant.

  • F. It promotes the coalition of governments.

In a two-party system,  only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.

  • A. True

  • B. False

On February 25, 2023; Nigeria as a country had its presidential election. The party system involved in this election is the _____.

  • A. Zero Party System

  • B. One-Party System

  • C. Two-Party System

  • D. Multi-Party System

  • E. APC, PDP and LP Party System

  • F. Coalition Party System

The following countries practice a zero party system except _____.

  • A. Cambodia

  • B. Vatican City

  • C. Bahrain

  • D. Saudi Arabia

  • E. Oman

  • F. Kuwait

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?

  • A. It is democratic in nature

  • B. There isn't a third party

  • C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain

  • D. The president must emerge from one of both parties

  • E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press

  • F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

Pressure Groups:

Pressure groups are present in every country of the world. These groups are crucial to the members who make them up because they wield the power to influence the government and governmental Institutions, alongside their policies and laws through their actions.

Note: The pressure group can also influence any political institution, society, another group or an individual.

By definition, a pressure group is any formal and organized body or group of people with the same interest, and whose main goal is to put pressure on any governmental institution in order to influence government policies and laws to their own gain.

Please read on the characteristics of pressure groups here.

An example of a pressure group whose voice is often heard in Nigeria is the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU).

Recall that a pressure named 'End SARS' arose in Nigeria in 2020. The goal of the 'End SARS Group' was to put an end to police brutality, alongside other abuses constantly faced by the Nigerian youths through the government. In this regard, the brave Nigerian youths gathered at the Lekki tollgate on October 20, 2020 in a peaceful protest against the Nigerian SARS. Unfortunately, some of these youths were shot to death by the Nigerian Military with the nation's flag soaked in blood. This was indeed a dark day for the Nigerian youths in the country's history. Through this action of the End SARS pressure group, SARS was eventually abolished in Nigeria.

Another instance of a pressure group in Nigeria is the Bring Back Our Girls (BBOG) group who pressured the Nigerian government into taking appropriate actions towards the release of the 276 kidnapped female secondary students popularly referred to as the Chibok Girls, in Chibok, Bornu State, Nigeria.

Bring Back Our Girls - Len Academy

Note: These innocent female students were kidnapped by the so called 'Boko Haram' terrorists on the night of April 14th - 15th, 2014.

The above pressure group was massive globally to an extent that even the first ladies of various foreign countries became a part of it.

Please read on the introduction to government and definitions of government here.

A legendary Nigerian artist by name Innocent Idibia (popularly called 2face) made a song titled 'Break the silence'. He featured various artists on this song as they all made their voices heard towards the release of the kidnapped Chibok girls.


Pressure Groups in Nigeria

The Ethinic Pressure Group is a type of pressure group.

Please read on the introduction to pressure groups and types of pressure groups here.

Some of the ethnic (or regional) pressure groups present in Nigeria include:

1. Afenifere

Formed in 1993 in the houses of Chief Bola Ige and Alhaji Lateef Jakande, Afenifere is a socio-cultural organization formed in the interest of the Yoruba people within Nigeria and beyond.

Afenifere preserves the identity, culture and vision of the Yoruba people.

Please read on values and type of values in civic education here.

Its first leader was Chief Abraham Adesanya while Chief Bola Ige served as the deputy leader.

After the death of Chief Abraham Adesanya, another similar group called "Afenifere Renewal Group (ARG)" came into existence in 1998.

2. Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF)

The Arewa Consultative Forum is a pressure group established on 7th March, 2000. They are considered to be the most influential group in northern Nigeria.

The main goal of ACF is to maintain the unity of the northern region in Nigeria. Infact, they acclaim themselves to be the pillar of unity with regards to northern democracy.

Please read more on democracy and its characteristics here.

Arewa Consultative Forum are seen to be very active on issues relating to Nigerian politics.

3. Ijaw Youth Council (IYC)

The Ijaw Youth Council (fondly called Ijaw Youths) was formed on the 11th day of December 1998 in Kaiama, Bayelsa state.

IYC are considered to be the most active pressure group in the south-south region of Nigeria.

They stand and fight for the civil and fundamental rights of their people.

Please read on your fundamental human rights here.

Due to the presence of oil in this region, they had constantly demanded for an independent government in order to manage their own resources.

Please read on the various types/forms of government here.

  • Mujahid Asari Dokubo is a former head of this pressure group.

4. Middle Belt Forum (MBF)

The MBF is a socio-political group in the middle belt region of Nigeria.

Although the diverse ethinic group within this region are often considered as minority in Nigeria, the MBF have actively and effectively worked towards the liberation of her people from the domination of other geo-political zones in Nigeria, especially the nothern Nigeria.

You can read on the attributes of a resident and citizen here.

The middle belt states in Nigeria include Benue, Plateau, Nassarawa, Abuja (FCT), Kogi, Kwara, Taraba, Adamawa and Niger states respectively.

5. Ohanaeze Ndigbo

This is the ultimate pressure group in the eastern part of Nigeria.

After the Nigerian civil war, they came into existence in 1976 with the core aim of unifying the Igbo people living within and outside Nigeria.

Ohaneze Ndigbo are known to fight for the civil and democratic rights of the Igbos.

Ohanaeze Ndigbo had been successfully headed by Chief Kingsley Mbadiwe, Dr. Francis Akanu Ibiam, Dr. Michael I. Okpara, Dr. Pius Okigbo and Chief Jerome Udorji.

Please read on Herbert Macaulay, the Nigerian Nationalist here.


Other examples of Pressure Groups in Nigeria are:

  • Odua Peoples Congress (OPC)
  • Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC)
  • Nigerian Bar Association (NBA)
  • Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)
  • Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs (NSCIA)
  • Please read on various Nigerian acronyms and their meanings here.

  • National Association of Nigerian Student (NANS)
  • Nigerian Medical Association (NMA)
  • Bring Back Our Girls (BBOG)
  • Campaign for Democracy (CD)
  • Civil Liberties Organization (CLO)
  • Committee for the Defense of Human Rights (CDHR)
  • Academic Staff Union for Universities (ASUU)

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Amazing facts in Government

The shortest war ever lasted for just 38 minutes. This is the Anglo-Zanzibar War in 1896

174 world leaders signed the Paris Agreement on Earth Day in 2016 at the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York. This agreement presents the largest number of countries ever to come together to sign anything on a single day. The agreement aims to combat climate change, accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed to strengthen the global climate effort

United States of America is comprised of fifty states and Washington D.C.

The letter 'q' is not present in any of the American states

White House in Washington has 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms while Buckingham Palace in London has 775 rooms, including 78 bathrooms

Three United States presidents; John Adams (2nd US president), Thomas Jefferson (3rd US president), and James Monroe (5th US president) died on the 4th of July.

Coincidentally, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson also died the same year, and that's 1826.

Abraham Lincoln, the great human emancipator, freedom fighter and 16th American president was popular for the saying:

Government of the people, by the people and for the people

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States of America was a professional wrestler before he assumed the office of the American President. Interestingly, he was only defeated once in his wrestling career

Notable points in Government

Ecclesiocracy is a form of government whereby religious leaders are recognized as the first citizens of a state.

The religious leaders in ecclesiocracy do not proclaim themselves as a direct instrument of divine revelation concerning laws governing the society.

A typical example of ecclesiocracy is seen in Vatican City where the pope presides as the leader of the state. However, the pope does not claim to receive direct revelation from God concerning civil laws.

The grand Ayatollah of Iran (Ali Khamenei) and president of Sudan, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir are also considered as instances of leaders in ecclesiocracy.

It is worthy of note to state that the laws and rules governing the land in ecclesiocracy are based on religious beliefs, thus making it somewhat related to theocracy.

One of the duties of the government is to make laws that govern the society. Without laws, some of the rich may oppress the poor. Similarly, some of the highly placed in the society may end up oppressing the weak without being brought to justice.

The absence of government in a society, country, nation, state or community is referred to as anarchy.

An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.

Please read on the forms of government here

Below are some of the functions of government:

  • It is the role of the government to protect and defend the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

  • The government maintains law and order through the law enforcement agencies. These will include the police, customs officers and other local securities.

  • It is the duty of the government to generate revenue. This can be achieved through foreign trade.

  • It is the responsibility of the government to maintain external relations with other countries. For this reason, the president may visit other countries for business and bilateral trade purposes. Similarly, other presidents may visit your country in this regard.

  • Please read on the functions of government here

Government can be defined under the following headings:

1. As an institution of a state.

Government is defined as an institution, agency, machinery or instrument that is established to manage the affairs of general welfare of the people making up a state or country


2. As a process or as an act of governing.

Government is defined as the processes and methods involved in the formulation, administration and implementation of public policies from a procedure which had been specifically spelt out in the constitution of a country or state


3. As an academic field of study.

Government is defined as the study of institutions, theories, ideas, values and doctrines as relating to the acquisition and use of political power for the welfare of the people

Please read more on the definitions of government here

End Sars - Len Academy

The End Sars is considered a pressure group in Nigeria. It campaigned in the interest of Nigerian youths, thus forcing the Nigerian government into scrapping the Special Anti-Robbery Squard (SARS) who had constantly brutalized Nigerians, especially the youths; through extortion, indiscriminate shootings, threats and other violent conducts.

Unfortunately, some Nigerian youths paid the ultimate price with their lives at the Lekki tollgate massacre. This happened on the 20th day of October, 2020.

Burna Boy, a Nigerian musician made a song titled '20 : 10 : 20' in this regard.

Please read on pressure groups in Nigeria here