Basic Science

Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance

len Alfred Ajibola - Sun, 24th March, 2019 @ 14:42: PM

Topics in Basic Science

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?

  • A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body

  • B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass

  • C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth

  • D. Weight is a function of gravity

  • E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units

  • F. None of the above

Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?

  • A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space

  • B. Air is an example of matter

  • C. Plasma is a state of matter

  • D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo

  • E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter

  • F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes

Which of the following is NOT matter?

  • A. Atom

  • B. Molecule

  • C. Ion

  • D. Bacterium

  • E. Virus

  • F. None of the above

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. Plant
  2. Sun
  3. Food
  4. Water
  5. Air
  6. Earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

A body at rest possess _____ energy.

  • A. Kinetic
  • B. Potential
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. Chemical

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What is Immunization?

If you take a look at the upper part of your left arm, you may likely see a tiny depressed spot. This is a sign that you are immunized.

Before I define immunization, I think it's a good idea if we understood it's concept. Below is a brief analogy:

When a baby is born, he or she must live in an environment.

For now, think of your environment as everything that surrounds you. It includes the air, your clothes, the food you eat and so on.

Please read on the Introduction to Biology and the Basic Characteristics of Life here.

Note: Always understand that the air, water and land that make up your environment contains billions of pathogens or germs.

Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases. (Disease causing organisms).

Please read on Vectors and Disease causing organisms here.

Based on the fact that a variety of micro-organisms constitute a part of our environment, certain molecules or pathogens or germs may find their way into the baby's system (whom is yet to be immunized).

The "unimmunized" baby's immune system has no knowledge of the pathogens that gained entry into the baby; hence these pathogens are termed foreign bodies or non-self with regards to the baby's system.

The baby's immune system will react very slowly while attempting to fight back. The slow response from the immune system arises because the baby's defence system (antibodies) have got no memory of these foreign bodies.

Please read on Micro-organisms that causes Food, Water and Air Borne Diseases here.

Foreign bodies are also referred to as antigens.

The terms "foreign body, pathogens, germs and antigens" will be used interchangeable in this article because they all refer to something similar: "causative agent for diseases".

The above scenerio can be detrimental to the baby's health; but the good news is:

Immunization gives a prior knowledge to the immune system on the specific antigens that may gain entry into the baby's system.

In short, the baby's immune system is now prepared for whatever foreign body (antigen) that may find it's way into him or her; as far as he/she is immunized from the diseases caused by the antigen.

Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.

In reality, after a baby is born, he or must be immunized against the specific antigen(s) and their consequent diseases.

Immunization is the process of introducing weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

These weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms administered to the baby is termed vaccine. For this reason, immunization is also referred to as vaccination

Most vaccines are given by injection (via a needle), while others may be given orally (via the mouth) or nasally (via the nose).

Note: Immunization is also called vaccination, shotsjabs or needles

Please read on Protists and their Characteristics here.

 

How Immunization Work

With regards to the fact that vaccines contain the exact same pathogens or germs that cause diseases (but in a weakened or dead form), the vaccine becomes harmless and do not make the child sick.

The importance of the infused vaccine is based on the fact that it triggers the production of antibodies.

Antibodies are responsible for fighting and killing the already weakened or dead pathogens contained in the vaccine during immunization or vaccination.

The generation of the specific antibodies for the pathogen or antigen (present in vaccine) will serve as an indication to preparedness; in case the same exact pathogen/antigen/germs find their way into the baby again.

Note: These antibodies keep the memory of how they rapidly killed such pathogens when they first entered the baby's system in their weakened/dead forms (during vaccination/immunization).

Now, let's imagine that after vaccination, the "real" pathogen (capable of causing disease) enters the child's body. At this point, the child will be on the safer side now because:

  • Antibodies required to fight and kill these germs/pathogens are already present in the child's system.
  • These antibodies can now easily kill the pathogens/germs because the have a memory of previously killing the exact pathogen/germ.

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.

 

Importance of Immunization

Both children and adults need immunization. We already know that it is wiser, easier, better and cheaper to prevent a disease than to cure it. This is exactly what immunization does.

Immunization develops the immune system and makes us resistant or immune to certain infectious diseases such as:

  • Measles

  • Pertussis (whopping cough)

  • Mumps

  • Rubella

  • Polio

  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

  • Chicken pox

  • Smallpox

  • Diphtheria

  • Tetanus

  • Rotavirus

  • Yellow Fever

  • Tuberculosis

  • Hepatitis B

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len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue

Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.

They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young

🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards

The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color

The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.

That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓

🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit

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Facts on Elephants - Len Academy

Elephants can't jump


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

  1. Protects our eyes against sweat, rain, dirt and other atmospheric contaminants.
  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eye Brow - Len Academy

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.

All fruits have seeds.

There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.

Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object.

If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here.

Weight is measured in Newton

Please read on the concept of Mass and Weight here

Mass is the amount or quantity of matter (substance) contained in a body. For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass.

Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon respectively.

Mass is measured in gram or kilogram and it's quite different from weight.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space.

Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma