Topics in Basic SciencePrimates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter Benefits and Importance of African Star Apple (Agbalumo or Udara)
Academic Questions in Basic Science
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
If you take a look at the upper part of your left arm, you may likely see a tiny depressed spot. This is a sign that you are immunized.
Before I define immunization, I think it's a good idea if we understood it's concept. Below is a brief analogy:
When a baby is born, he or she must live in an environment.
For now, think of your environment as everything that surrounds you. It includes the air, your clothes, the food you eat and so on.
Always understand that the air, water and land that make up your environment contains billions of pathogens or germs.
Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases. (Disease causing organisms).
Based on the fact that a variety of micro-organisms constitute a part of our environment, certain molecules or pathogens or germs may find their way into the baby's system (whom is yet to be immunized).
The "unimmunized" baby's immune system has no knowledge of the pathogens that gained entry into the baby; hence these pathogens are termed foreign bodies or non-self with regards to the baby's system.
The baby's immune system will react very slowly while attempting to fight back. The slow response from the immune system arises because the baby's defence system (antibodies) have got no memory of these foreign bodies.
Foreign bodies are also referred to as antigens.
The terms "foreign body, pathogens, germs and antigens" will be used interchangeable in this article because they all refer to something similar: "causative agent for diseases".
The above scenerio can be detrimental to the baby's health; but the good news is:
Immunization gives a prior knowledge to the immune system on the specific antigens that may gain entry into the baby's system.
In short, the baby's immune system is now prepared for whatever foreign body (antigen) that may find it's way into him or her; as far as he/she is immunized from the diseases caused by the antigen.
In reality, after a baby is born, he or must be immunized against the specific antigen(s) and their consequent diseases.
Immunization is the process of introducing weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
These weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms administered to the baby is termed vaccine. For this reason, immunization is also referred to as vaccination
Most vaccines are given by injection (via a needle), while others may be given orally (via the mouth) or nasally (via the nose).
Note: Immunization is also called vaccination, shots, jabs or needles
With regards to the fact that vaccines contain the exact same pathogens or germs that cause diseases (but in a weakened or dead form), the vaccine becomes harmless and do not make the child sick.
The importance of the infused vaccine is based on the fact that it triggers the production of antibodies.
Antibodies are responsible for fighting and killing the already weakened or dead pathogens contained in the vaccine during immunization or vaccination.
The generation of the specific antibodies for the pathogen or antigen (present in vaccine) will serve as an indication to preparedness; in case the same exact pathogen/antigen/germs find their way into the baby again.
Note: These antibodies keep the memory of how they rapidly killed such pathogens when they first entered the baby's system in their weakened/dead forms (during vaccination/immunization).
Now, let's imagine that after vaccination, the "real" pathogen (capable of causing disease) enters the child's body. At this point, the child will be on the safer side now because:
1. Antibodies required to fight and kill these germs/pathogens are already present in the child's system.
2. These antibodies can now easily kill the pathogens/germs because the have a memory of previously killing the exact pathogen/germ.
Both children and adults need immunization. We already know that it is wiser, easier, better and cheaper to prevent a disease than to cure it. This is exactly what immunization does. It develops the immune system and makes us resistant or immune to certain infectious diseases such as:
Pertussis (whopping cough)
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in Basic Science
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; when one is said to have blue eyes, it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color
The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.
That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓
🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit
It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow
The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma
Elephants can't jump
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.
Image Credit: Unilad
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.
All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.
Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton
Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.
Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely: