Basic Science

Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance

len Alfred Ajibola - Sun, 24th March, 2019 @ 14:42: PM

Topics in Basic Science

Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: What is food? Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man

Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism

The human brain is folded into gyri, grooved into sulci and also the most developed among all organisms in the universe.

  • A. True

  • B. False

According to science, all human beings are animals.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.

  • A. Hospital

  • B. Recyclable

  • C. Metabolic

  • D. Green

  • E. Radioactive

  • F. Electronic



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What is Immunization?

If you take a look at the upper part of your left arm, you may likely see a tiny depressed spot. This is a sign that you are immunized.

Before I define immunization, I think it's a good idea if we understood it's concept. Below is a brief analogy:

When a baby is born, he or she must live in an environment.

For now, think of your environment as everything that surrounds you. It includes the air, your clothes, the food you eat and so on.

Please read on the Introduction to Biology and the Basic Characteristics of Life here.

Note: Always understand that the air, water and land that make up your environment contains billions of pathogens or germs.

Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases. (Disease causing organisms).

Please read on Vectors and Disease causing organisms here.

Based on the fact that a variety of micro-organisms constitute a part of our environment, certain molecules or pathogens or germs may find their way into the baby's system (whom is yet to be immunized).

The "unimmunized" baby's immune system has no knowledge of the pathogens that gained entry into the baby; hence these pathogens are termed foreign bodies or non-self with regards to the baby's system.

The baby's immune system will react very slowly while attempting to fight back. The slow response from the immune system arises because the baby's defence system (antibodies) have got no memory of these foreign bodies.

Please read on Micro-organisms that causes Food, Water and Air Borne Diseases here.

Foreign bodies are also referred to as antigens.

The terms "foreign body, pathogens, germs and antigens" will be used interchangeable in this article because they all refer to something similar: "causative agent for diseases".

The above scenerio can be detrimental to the baby's health; but the good news is:

Immunization gives a prior knowledge to the immune system on the specific antigens that may gain entry into the baby's system.

In short, the baby's immune system is now prepared for whatever foreign body (antigen) that may find it's way into him or her; as far as he/she is immunized from the diseases caused by the antigen.

Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.

In reality, after a baby is born, he or must be immunized against the specific antigen(s) and their consequent diseases.

Immunization is the process of introducing weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

These weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms administered to the baby is termed vaccine. For this reason, immunization is also referred to as vaccination

Most vaccines are given by injection (via a needle), while others may be given orally (via the mouth) or nasally (via the nose).

Note: Immunization is also called vaccination, shotsjabs or needles

Please read on Protists and their Characteristics here.


How Immunization Work

With regards to the fact that vaccines contain the exact same pathogens or germs that cause diseases (but in a weakened or dead form), the vaccine becomes harmless and do not make the child sick.

The importance of the infused vaccine is based on the fact that it triggers the production of antibodies.

Antibodies are responsible for fighting and killing the already weakened or dead pathogens contained in the vaccine during immunization or vaccination.

The generation of the specific antibodies for the pathogen or antigen (present in vaccine) will serve as an indication to preparedness; in case the same exact pathogen/antigen/germs find their way into the baby again.

Note: These antibodies keep the memory of how they rapidly killed such pathogens when they first entered the baby's system in their weakened/dead forms (during vaccination/immunization).

Now, let's imagine that after vaccination, the "real" pathogen (capable of causing disease) enters the child's body. At this point, the child will be on the safer side now because:

  • Antibodies required to fight and kill these germs/pathogens are already present in the child's system.
  • These antibodies can now easily kill the pathogens/germs because the have a memory of previously killing the exact pathogen/germ.

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.


Importance of Immunization

Both children and adults need immunization. We already know that it is wiser, easier, better and cheaper to prevent a disease than to cure it. This is exactly what immunization does.

Immunization develops the immune system and makes us resistant or immune to certain infectious diseases such as:

  • Measles

  • Pertussis (whopping cough)

  • Mumps

  • Rubella

  • Polio

  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

  • Chicken pox

  • Smallpox

  • Diphtheria

  • Tetanus

  • Rotavirus

  • Yellow Fever

  • Tuberculosis

  • Hepatitis B

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

🍅 Tomatoes 🍅 and 🥑 Avocados 🥑 are actually fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things

🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges

Rain water contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋

Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.

Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.

Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue


Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the African Star Apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
  3. Chitin
  4. Cellulose


  • Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

  • Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

  • Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

  • Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here