Basic Science

Immunization explained

Alfred Ajibola - Sun, 24th March, 2019 @ 14:42: PM

Topics in Basic Science

Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors of diseases Bones of the Human Body Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and their side effects Immunization explained Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man Causes and Effects of improper Waste Management

Academic Questions in Basic Science

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. plants
  2. sun
  3. food
  4. water
  5. air
  6. earth

ANSWER is sun

Without the sun, there will be no life on earth. Even plants require the sun to manufacture their food. The mode of nutrition through which organisms manufacture their own food is termed autotrophic nutrition. Please read on autotrophic nutrition here.

Note: Every other form of energy directly or indirectly comes from the sun. 

Basic Science

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.


ANSWER is false

The speed of wind is measured with an anemometer  while the direction of wind is measured with a wind vane

Basic Science

QUESTION: The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

ANSWER is: Protein

A nutrient is any substance that contains the nourishment essential for life. Nutrients are present in all the six classes of food. The classes of food are Carbohydrate, Protein, Fats and Oil, Vitamins, Mineral Salts and Water.

Note: The liver is a very rich source of protein. Other sources of protein are fish, egg and meat.

What is the common nutrient found in liver and beans?
A. fats
B. vitamins
C. carbohydrates
D. Proteins

Read more

Basic Science

What is Immunization?

If you take a look at the upper part of your left arm, you may likely see a tiny depressed spot. This is a sign that you are immunized. Before I define immunization, I think it's best we understand it's concept. When a child is born, he or she must live in an environment. The air, water and land that makes up this environment contains billions of pathogens or germs (pathogens are disease causing organisms). If by chance, this baby is yet to be immunized, certain molecules or pathogen or germs may find their way into the baby's system. Because all of these molecules are foreign to the baby's body system, they are termed foreign bodies or non-self. The baby's immune system will react very slowly when attempting to fight back because it has no memory of these foreign bodies. This is not too good for the baby as his or her health will become negatively impacted. The good news is "Immunization can prevent this from happening".

Immunization or Vaccination is the process of introducing weakened or dead forms of disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause. These weakened or dead form of disease causing organism is termed vaccine. Most vaccines are given by injection (via a needle), while others may be given orally (via the mouth) or nasally (via the nose).

Note: Immunization is also called vaccination, shotsjabs or needles


How Immunization Work

Because vaccines contain the exact same pathogens or germs that cause diseases (but in a weakened or dead form), it become harmless and do not make the child sick. The importance of vaccine is that it triggers the production of antibodies that will fight and kill the germs. These antibodies keep the memory of how to rapidly kill such germs when they enter the body again. Let's imagine that after vaccination, the real germ (capable of causing disease) enters the child's body. The child will be on the safer side now because:

  • Antibodies required to fight and kill these germs are already present in the child's system.

  • These antibodies can now easily kill the germs because the have a memory of previously killing the exact germ.


Importance of Immunization

Both children and adults need immunization. We already know that it is much more easier, better and cheaper to prevent a disease that to cure it. This is exactly what immunization does. It develops the immune system and makes us resistant or immune to certain infectious diseases such as:

  • Measles

  • Pertussis (whopping cough)

  • Mumps

  • Rubella

  • Polio

  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

  • Chicken pox

  • Smallpox

  • Diphtheria

  • Tetanus

  • Rotavirus

  • Yellow Fever

  • Tuberculosis

  • Hepatitis B

Amazing facts in Basic Science


All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.

Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton

Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

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