Agricultural Science

Plant Propagation: Sexual Propagation in Plants

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 29th March, 2019 @ 6:42 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management



What is plant propagation?

One of the ways through which life is naturally formed is via a process termed fertilization.

Fertilization is defined as the fusion of sperm and egg or ova (with the exchange of genetic materials) leading to the formation of a zygote.

For fertilization to occur in plants, it's the pollen grain that comes into contact with the ova; and a zygote is formed, giving rise to a seed.

Note: Another method through which life may be formed is via a process termed regeneration. In some organisms, certain cells regenerate missing parts, creating an entire organism in the process. This is called totipotency.

You can read on various agricultural terms and meanings here.

Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture that involves the process of creating new plants.

Sexual propagation and Asexual propagation are the 2 methods of plant propagation.

In this article, we will explain sexual propagation (also called sexual reproduction) in plants.

Please read on asexual propagation here.

 

Sexual Propagation in Plants

The term 'sexual' refers to any process involving the male gamete and the female gamete.

Think of gametes as sex cells; that is, sperm and ova/egg (or pollen grains and ova in the case of plants).

Please read on the male reproductive system here.

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to yield a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

The image below shows the floral parts of a flower:

Parts of a Flower - Len Academy

You can attempt Len Academy examination questions for Agric Science, JSS1, 2nd term here.


A zygote is formed when the pollen grains from the anther of a flower is transferred to the stigma of a flower (of the same plant or another plant) by certain agents like wind, water or animal leading to the eventual fertilization of the egg or ova. This process is termed pollination.

Note: After fertilization, the ovary be becomes the fruit and the ovule, the seed.

The seed is the product of sexual reproduction and it's composed of three parts. These are:

  1. Outer seed coat: Functions to protect the seed.
  2. Endosperm: It serves as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo.
  3. Embryo: Develops into the young plant.

Please read on the differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here.


A seed has it's own genotype. Half of this genotype comes from the pollen grain and the other half from the egg/ova. Consequently, the resulting plant from such seed will possess characteristics from the parent plant(s).

It is noteworthy to state that some seeds are not produced sexually. A typical example is the hawkweed (Hieracium specie). It produces seed without sexual union through a process called apomixis. Seeds produced in this way are called apomictic seeds.

Certain bisexual flowers are self sterile. This means that whenever pollen grains from a flower is deposited on the stigma of the same flower (bisexual flower), no fertilization will occur.

Think of a bisexual flower as one that contains the male reproductive organ (carpel) and the female reproductive organ (stamen or pistil).

In another type self sterile flowers, the male and female gamete mature at different times, making fertilization impossible.

Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


Notable points in Agricultural Science

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy

 

Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here

Below are some of the problems of agriculture in Nigeria:

  • Lack of mechanized farming

  • Poor government policies

  • High cost of fertilizers

  • Lack of education

  • Lack of storage facilities

  • Bad road network

  • Poor research facilities

Please read a detailed explanation on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.