Agricultural Science

Plant Propagation: Sexual Propagation in Plants

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 29th March, 2019 @ 6:42 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q) part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.

  • A. Foetus

  • B. Embryo

  • C. Ovary

  • D. Neonate

  • E. Zygote

  • F. Egg

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What is plant propagation?

One of the ways through which life is naturally formed is via a process termed fertilization.

Fertilization is defined as the fusion of sperm and egg or ova (with the exchange of genetic materials) leading to the formation of a zygote.

For fertilization to occur in plants, it's the pollen grain that comes into contact with the ova; and a zygote is formed, giving rise to a seed.

Note: Another method through which life may be formed is via a process termed regeneration. In some organisms, certain cells regenerate missing parts, creating an entire organism in the process. This is called totipotency.

You can read on various agricultural terms and meanings here.

Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture that involves the process of creating new plants.

Sexual propagation and Asexual propagation are the 2 methods of plant propagation.

In this article, we will explain sexual propagation (also called sexual reproduction) in plants.

Please read on asexual propagation here.

 

Sexual Propagation in Plants

The term 'sexual' refers to any process involving the male gamete and the female gamete.

Think of gametes as sex cells; that is, sperm and ova/egg (or pollen grains and ova in the case of plants).

Please read on the male reproductive system here.

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to yield a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals
  2. Petals
  3. Stamen
  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

The image below shows the floral parts of a flower:

Parts of a Flower - Len Academy

You can attempt Len Academy examination questions for Agric Science, JSS1, 2nd term here.


A zygote is formed when the pollen grains from the anther of a flower is transferred to the stigma of a flower (of the same plant or another plant) by certain agents like wind, water or animal leading to the eventual fertilization of the egg or ova. This process is termed pollination.

Note: After fertilization, the ovary be becomes the fruit and the ovule, the seed.

The seed is the product of sexual reproduction and it's composed of three parts. These are:

  1. Outer seed coat: Functions to protect the seed.
  2. Endosperm: It serves as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo.
  3. Embryo: Develops into the young plant.

Please read on the differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here.


A seed has it's own genotype. Half of this genotype comes from the pollen grain and the other half from the egg/ova. Consequently, the resulting plant from such seed will possess characteristics from the parent plant(s).

It is noteworthy to state that some seeds are not produced sexually. A typical example is the hawkweed (Hieracium specie). It produces seed without sexual union through a process called apomixis. Seeds produced in this way are called apomictic seeds.

Certain bisexual flowers are self sterile. This means that whenever pollen grains from a flower is deposited on the stigma of the same flower (bisexual flower), no fertilization will occur.

Think of a bisexual flower as one that contains the male reproductive organ (carpel) and the female reproductive organ (stamen or pistil).

In another type self sterile flowers, the male and female gamete mature at different times, making fertilization impossible.

Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on carnivorous plants here