English

Figures of Speech

Olawunmi Omosanya - Wed, 17th April, 2019 @ 15:30: PM

Topics in English

Homonyms explained with examples Idioms and Examples of Idioms Synonyms explained with examples Figures of Speech Relative pronouns explained with examples Transitive and Intransitive verbs Meaning, Type and Examples of a Clause and Phrase Essays and Types of Essay



Academic Questions in English

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Words with same spelling, same sound and different meanings are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homonyms
  • B. Homographs
  • C. Homophones
  • D. Synonyms
  • E. Antonyms
  • F. Homophobes

A man who writes a book is called an author. A woman who writes a book is called an _____.

  • A. author
  • B. authoress
  • C. authorite
  • D. authority
  • E. authress
  • F. auther

The teacher was so vague that we could barely comprehend the _____ details of the topic.

From the options below, which word correctly fills the gap and is also opposite to the underlined word.

  • A. transparent
  • B. minute
  • C. hidden
  • D. explanatory
  • E. main
  • F. specific

Jane is very indolent while her sister Thelma is one of the most _____ girls on campus.

From the options below, which word correctly fills the gap and is also opposite to underlined word.

  • A. devoted
  • B. diligent
  • C. trustworthy
  • D. perfect
  • E. strongest
  • F. intelligent

We had a meeting comprising of all the _____.

  • A. fathers-in-laws
  • B. father-in-law
  • C. father-in-laws
  • D. fathers-in-law

Figure of Speech:

Whenever we make a speech, we either express ourselves literally or figuratively. For instance, when I say “I’m happy”; it literally means that I am happy and that’s it! Conversely, if I said: “That guy is as thin as a toothpick” literally, we all know that no one can be as thin as a toothpick. It’s just a figurative statement indicating that the guy is very thin. This is what a figure of speech entail.

A figure of speech is said to be a word or phrase that does not take its literal meaning but rather, it has a different meaning.

Such figurative words  do not require a dictionary meaning for their interpretation.

Figures of speech make a language more exciting and creative. We have always had them from the time of our great grandparents and they don’t look like they are going anywhere. Instead, more are been added on a daily basis. In this article, we shall look at some of them.

Types of figure of speech

 

Simile

It uses the two main words “as and like” as a source of comparison between two things that normally do not have anything in common. Examples are:

  • Tunde is as black as a charcoal.
  • Esther is as brave as a lion.
  • Akeem is as gentle as a dove.

 

Metaphor

Just like simile, a metaphor is used to compare two dissimilar objects or things but the difference between both is that a metaphor does not use the words “as and like”. Examples are:

Tunde is a charcoal. (Tunde is very black).

She is a pig. (She is very dirty).

James is at the peak of his education (James is at the highest point of his education)

 

Irony

These are words or phrase that means the opposite of their literal meaning. It is somewhat related with sarcasm. For instance someone may give a teasing complement like “Oh boy! You look so majestic on that outfit”, but meanwhile what he is really trying to say is “You are looking so awkward!

 

Oxymoron

When two words with contradictory meanings are used together in a sentense, such contradictory words are referred to as oxymoron. For example:

  • That’s old news. (Old news is contradictory).
  • She is a powerless president. (Powerless president is contradictory).
  • The little giant is here. (Little giant is contradictory)

 

Proverbs

They are words of wisdom and are generally used to express the truth of a matter. Almost every tradition has got their respective proverbs and the elders are more likely to understand their meanings. For instance;

  • Make haste while the sun shines. (Work hard while you have the strength OR do not waste your time).
  • The caterpillar that eats the leaf is within the leaf. (Whoever is responsible for your predicament is very close to you).
  • Don’t count your chicks before they hatch. (Don’t celebrate when your success is yet to be confirmed OR don’t be too quick to act like something has happened when it hasn’t).

 

Personification

In personification, inanimate objects or things without life are ascribed with human qualities. Examples are:

  • Time is running fast
  • They felt the pleasing touch of the sun
  • The car engine is dead!

 

Hyperbole

It overemphasizes the importance of something. In Greek, hyperbole means excess. They therefore give a bigger impression about something. For example:

  • Dave was so tasty that he could finish 25 liters of water.
  • I will continue to love you until Nigeria and America merge.

 

Idiom

They are better understood within a particular culture because they mean something entire different from whatever is being said. For example:

  • It rained cat and dog. (It rained heavily)
  • The man had kicked the bucket. (The man is dead)
  • Emmanuel killed two birds with one stone. (Emmanuel achieve two task simultaneously)

 

Paradox

These are meaningful words that appear to be contradictory. For example:

  • The end has just begun.
  • He died to live forever.
  • Love is pain.

 

Onomatopoeia

These are words that are closely associated with sounds. The sounds can be that of a human or an imaginary object. For example:

  • The clap of thunder scared the hell out of him. (Clap is a sound made by the hands of humans)
  • The door was squeaking.

 

Synecdoche

These are incomplete or partial words that are used represent the whole of something. For instance:

  • The man learnt the 123’s in primary school. (I23 is only a part of what was learnt; probably he learnt 1-1000)
  • The learnt the ABC’s in class 1.

 

Sarcasm

It's very similar to irony and is the exact opposite of what was said. Sometimes people may sound sarcastic when they intend to mock others or praise others. For instance:

  • Tony is a bad guy. (It means Tony is actually a good guy).
  • Oh! Mr. Handsome is here. (It means the ugliest dude is here)

 

Slang

Slang uses an unusual word or phrase which has a specific meaning. They are mostly originated within a country and often used within that country or a state in such country. They are generally used by the world when they become popularized. For example:

  • That guy is a "yahoo boy". (Yahoo boy means cyber criminal)
  • The man is my "maga", said the beautiful woman. (It means the man is under the control of the beautiful woman.)
  • The young boy has "bar". (The young boy has a lot of money)

 

Apostrophe

This is when an inanimate object is addressed as though it had the characteristics or features of a living being. For example:

  • What kind of stupid phone is this?
  • Damn, this biro made me fail.
  • The nylon flew away.

 

Anaphora

These are words that contains a successive repetition of a phrase or word. For example:

  • He was at the right place at the right time on the right day.

 

Chiasmus

These are balanced expression written in a reverse order. For example:

  • We die to live. (We actually live before we can die)
  • The fat man lives to eat. (We are supposed to eat to remain alive).
  • We grow old to become a child.

 

Alliteration

This is the repetition of a beginning consonant sound. For example:

  • The sun shall soon shine. (The letter “s” is a consonant sound that began most of the words in the sentence)
  • A plantain planter planted a plantain in a plantain plantation.

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Amazing facts in English

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Image Credit: Mourningdoula

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NOTABLE POINTS IN English

Homonyms are words with the same spellings, same sounds but different meanings.

Below are some sentences containing homonyms with their respective meanings

  • Keen

We have a keen match against Ronaldo’s team and Messi seems to be keen.

Keen: An involvement of people competing very hard for something.
Keen: Very interested in something.

 

  • Tear

Regardless the tear you shed, Mr. Frank will still tear your examination scripts.

Tear: The drop of liquid that comes out from a person's eye when they cry.
Tear: To damage something by pulling or cutting it apart.

 

  • Jot

There isn't any jot of truth in what he said, so I didn't jot  anything down.

Jot: A very small amount of somethin

Jot: To write something quickly

Please read more on Homonyms here

Certain words in English language appear to be similar but are quite different in meaning.

The table below shows some examples

 Childlike

 Childish

 Stimulus

 Stimulant

 Destructible

 Destructive

 Negligible

 Negligent

 Comprehensible

 Comprehensive

You can check out the difference in meanings of the words above.

Note: Synonyms are different words with similar meanings. Please read on synonyms here.

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