Posture and Postural Defects

len Alfred Ajibola - Mon, 22nd April, 2019 @ 3:29 PM

Topics in PHE

Postural defects that affect the spine or backbone Solutions to air pollution Len Academy Physical and Health Education questions for JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy Physical and Health Education questions for JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Posture and Postural Defects Tennis: The game of tennis with dimensions Domestic Accidents; Causes and Control of Domestic Accidents Air pollution: Effects of air pollution Drug Abuse, Causes of Drug Abuse in Adolescents Basket - Rules of Basketball Careers in Physical and Health Education

Academic Questions in PHE

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The following are postural defects except _____.

  • A. Joint Legs

  • B. Forward Head Posture

  • C. Flatfoot

  • D. Genu Valgum

  • E. Uneven Shoulders

  • F. Bowlegs

Protruding abdomen - Len Academy

The above image (protruding abdomen) is not a postural defect.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The tennis grand slam tournament played on a grass court is the _____.

  • A. US Open

  • B. Australian Open

  • C. Wimbledon

  • D. French Open

  • E. Italian Open

  • F. English Open

Which of the following sport personnels isn't a notable female tennis player? (The firstname had been abbreviated in the options below).

  • A. S. Tsitsipas
  • B. M. Navratilova

  • C. M. Hinges

  • D. M. Sharapova

  • E. V. Williams

  • F. N. Osaka

Which of the following isn't a measure to prevent domestic accidents?

  • A. Alertness and use of common sense when doing things

  • B. Drugs should be kept of out reach of children

  • C. All electrical issues should be fixed by parents only

  • D. Living rooms, rest rooms, stores, bathrooms and kitchen should be properly lighted

  • E. Babies should be closely monitored by parents

  • F. Families should be oriented on the basic home safety rules

Which of the following is false concerning domestic accidents?

  • A. They are preventable

  • B. They always occur inside our homes

  • C. They occur within our environment

  • D. Food can lead to domestic accidents

  • E. Carelessness is a major cause of domestic accidents

  • F. According to reports, it is considered as one of the 4 major causes of death around the world

Which of the following is not an effect of pollution?

  • A. Contamination of food by disease vectors

  • B. Eutrophication

  • C. Formation of acid rain

  • D. Afforestation

  • E. Global warming

  • F. Demise of aquatic flora and fauna

The process of contaminating the atmosphere by introducing harmful and toxic substances into it is termed _____.

  • A. Pollution

  • B. Wind Pollution

  • C. Air pollution

  • D. Lithospheric pollution

  • E. Hydrospheric pollution

  • F. Breeze pollution

Meaning of Posture:

Posture involves the various ways and manner a person positions his or her body with regards to how they sit, stand, bend, walk, lie and move.

A good posture indicates the right and proper alignment of the bones and muscles of the body. The part of our body above the hip bone, which include the head, neck, shoulder, upper limbs and backbone or spine, needs to be well balanced on the pelvic or hip bone when assuming a good posture.

When a line is traced from the midline of our body, a good posture requires that such line should be straight and not bent.

Please read on postural defects that affect the spine here.

A person may be born with some postural defect. Such a person is said to have a natural postural defect, although such defects may still be surgically corrected.

A second type of postural defect is the acquired postural defect which may result from stress, illness, accidents, abnormal eating lifestyles, wearing undersized shoes or lack of physical activities.

You can read on the functions and deficiencies of mineral salts here.

Bad postures can also be corrected via surgery and proper exercise.

Below are some examples of postural defects:

  • Bowleg

A person is said to be bow-legged if the knees becomes separate when both feet are closed together.

Bowleg may result from rickets or from a lack of calcium and vitamin D which are necessary for proper bone formation, growth and development.

In some cases, bowleg is hereditary and may consequently lead to arthritis around the lower limbs.

Knock Knees and Bow Legs - Len Academy


  • Knock knees

One is said to have a knock-knee if both knees are joined together when the feet are separated.

Knock Knees are also referred to as k-legs or genu valgum.

Knock knees usually results from malnutrition, obesity and rickets. In some cases, the cause of knock knee is idiopathic (unknown).

Please read on the bones of the human body here.


  • Protruding Abdomen

A person is said to have a protruding abdomen when the stomach abnormally extends out without any form of pregnancy.

Protruding Abdomen - Len Academy

In some people, the abdomen protrudes immediately after having a meal. This does not imply that such people have a protruding abdomen because it tends to go inwards after doing without food for some time.

Understand that protruding abdomen is always seen even after a long interval of staying without food.

Some causes of protruding abdomen include excessive and improper eating habits, frequent alcohol intake, sickness and lack of exercise.

You can read on bloating alongside food and activities that reduces it here.


  • Uneven Shoulder

Uneven Shoulder - Len Academy

This is seen in a person whose shoulders are not aligned. One shoulder will appear to be elevated while the other becomes lowered.

An ueven shoulder may result from the followings:

  • Frequent participation in sports like tennis and baseball.

  • A problem with the spine termed scoliosis.

  • The excessive use of one arm for various activities.

  • When one leg is longer than the other.

  • Improper sleeping posture.

  • An injury aroud the shoulder

Please read on domestic accidents, causes and control here.


  • Forward Head Posture (FHP)

Forward Head Posture - Len Academy

In a Forward Head Posture, the head and neck will appear to be pushed forward when a person stands in an upright position as a result of an anterior tilting of the cervical spine.

On a plain wall, the back of the head of a person with FHP will not touch the wall when standing in an upright position.

It is noteworthy to state that improper sleeping postures can result to FHP.


  • Flatfoot

Flatfoot - Len Academy

Flatfoot, also called fallen arches or pes planus is another form of postural defect. In this instance, the arch of the foot is seen to always touch the ground because they appear to be very low.

In some cases, the arch of the foot may not be present. This will result in the entire sole of the foot touching the ground while standing.

You can attempt Len Academy PHE Examination Questions for JSS1 here.


Ways to correct Postural Defects

  1. Avoid carrying too heavy loads.
    You can read on the disadvantages of money here.

  2. Don’t sit or stand all day long.

  3. Keep fit by exercising your muscles and bones.

  4. Practice a healthy feeding lifestyle.
    Please read on food - carbohydrates and sugars here.

  5. Use pillows below your head and neck when sleeping.

  6. Avoid sleeping on stony surfaces. Use a good and firm mattress.

  7. When you walk, make your head, neck and shoulders straight.

  8. Make use of a comfortable chair and desk in the office.

Need more answers to this topic? Please enter your search below:

Kindly share this article via the links below:


Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

Please contact Alfred via the above whatsapp link for a comprehensive online academic coaching in Biology, Chemistry, Basic Science and ICT

Click here to read the amazing features of the Len Academy Smart School Software. However, contact Alfred through the above whatsapp link if you require a standard website for your business at an affordable price

Please click here to follow Len Academy on Google News.

Please like and follow our official facebook page here for great educational write-ups.

You can follow Len Academy on twitter here.Thank you.

Please Register here or Login here to contribute to this topic by commenting in the box below.

Amazing facts in PHE

Boxing is a lucrative game. It is the only sport whereby neither the spectators nor the participants know the score through out the entire game.

The holes or curved indents in a gulf ball are called dimples. A gulf ball has a total of 366 dimples.

The dimples on the gulf ball allows a thin layer of air to cling on the ball's surface; as a result, reducing drag and allowing the ball to travel a longer distance