Posture and Postural Defects

len Alfred Ajibola - Mon, 22nd April, 2019 @ 15:29

Topics in PHE

Solutions to air pollution Len Academy Physical and Health Education questions for JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy Physical and Health Education questions for JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Posture and Postural Defects The game of Tennis with dimensions Domestic Accidents; Causes and Control of Domestic Accidents Air pollution: Effects of air pollution Drug Abuse, Causes of Drug Abuse in Adolescents Basket - Rules of Basketball Careers in Physical and Health Education

Academic Questions in PHE

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is not an effect of pollution?

  • A. Contamination of food by disease vectors

  • B. Eutrophication

  • C. Formation of acid rain

  • D. Afforestation

  • E. Global warming

  • F. Demise of aquatic flora and fauna

The process of contaminating the atmosphere by introducing harmful and toxic substances into it is termed _____.

  • A. Pollution

  • B. Wind Pollution

  • C. Air pollution

  • D. Lithospheric pollution

  • E. Hydrospheric pollution

  • F. Breeze pollution

Which of the following factors can lead to drug addiction?

  • A. Inspiration

  • B. Relaxation purposes

  • C. Curiosity

  • D. Discrimination

  • E. Revenge

  • F. All of the above

Drug addiction is defined as the habitual taking of drugs for different purposes.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Concerning the game of basketball, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Only 5 players for each team are allowed to play the game inside the court at any given point in time

  • B. The maximum players each team can have is 12

  • C. Teams can be awarded 1, 2 or 3 point depending on where and how a goal is scored

  • D. The game is played for a duration of 4 periods

  • E. Each game period has a time duration of 8 minutes

  • F. A team in possession of the ball has 24 seconds in an attempt to score or to have a shot towards the basket

Which of the following sport personnel is incorrectly matched to his field.

  • A. Isreal Adesanya - UFC

  • B. Michael Phelps II - Volleyball

  • C. Lewis Hamilton - Formula one

  • D. Tiger Woods - Golf

  • E. Mohammed Ali - Boxing

  • F. LeBron James - Basketball

Which of the following is not a career in physical and health education?

  • A. Sports manager

  • B. Food distributor

  • C. Physical therapist

  • D. Gym trainer

  • E. Professional wrestler

  • F. Golfer



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Meaning of Posture:

Posture involves the various ways and manner a person positions his or her body with regards to how they sit, stand, bend, walk, lie and move.

A good posture indicates the right and proper alignment of the bones and muscles of the body. The part of our body above the hip bone, which include the head, neck, shoulder, upper limbs and backbone or spine, needs to be well balanced on the pelvic or hip bone when assuming a good posture.

When a line is traced from the midline of our body, a good posture requires that such line should be straight and not bent.

Note: A person may be born with some postural defect. Such a person is said to have a natural postural defect although they may still be surgically corrected.

A second type of postural defect is the acquired Postural defect which may result from stress, illness, accidents, abnormal eating lifestyles, wearing undersized shoes or lack of physical activities.

Please read on the Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts here.

Bad postures can also be corrected via surgery and proper exercise.

Below are some examples of postural defects

  • Bowleg

A person is said to be bow-legged if the knees becomes separate when both feet are closed together.

Bowleg may result from a disease called rickets or from a lack of calcium and vitamin D which are necessary for proper bone formation, growth and development.

In some cases, bowleg is hereditary and may also lead to arthritis in the lower limb.

Knock Knees and Bow Legs - Len Academy


  • Knock knees

One is said to have a knock-knee if both knees are joined together when the feet are separated.

Knock Knees are also referred to as K-legs or genu valgum.

Knock knees usually results from malnutrition, obesity and rickets. In some cases, the cause of knock knee is idiopathic or unknown.

Please read on the Bones of the Human Body here.


  • Protruding Abdomen

A person is said to have a protruding abdomen when the stomach abnormally extends out without any form of pregnancy.

Protruding Abdomen - Len Academy

In some people, the abdomen protrudes immediately after having a meal. This does not imply that such people have a protruding abdomen because it tends to go inwards after doing without food for some time.

Protruding abdomen is always seen even after a long interval of staying without food.

Excessive and improper eating habits, frequent alcohol intake, sickness and lack of exercise can result in protruding abdomen.

Please read on Bloating; Food and Activities that reduce Bloating here.


  • Uneven Shoulder

Uneven Shoulder - Len Academy

This is seen in a person whose shoulders are not aligned. One shoulder will appear to be elevated while the other becomes lowered.

An ueven shoulder may result from the followings:

  • Frequent participation in sports like tennis and baseball.

  • A problem with the spine called Scoliosis.

  • The excessive use of one arm for various activities.

  • When one leg is longer than the other.

  • Improper sleeping posture.

  • An injury aroud the shoulder

Please read on Domestic Accidents, Its Causes and Control here.


  • Forward Head Posture (FHP)

Forward Head Posture - Len Academy

In a Forward Head Posture, the head and neck will appear to be pushed forward when a person stands in an upright position as a result of an anterior tilting of the cervical spine.

On a plain wall, the back of the head of a person with FHP will not touch the wall when standing in an upright position.

Note: Improper sleeping postures can result to FHP.


  • Flatfoot

Flatfoot - Len Academy

Flatfoot is also called fallen arches or pes planus. The arch of the foot is seen to always touch the ground because they appear to be very low.

In some cases, the arch of the foot may not be present. This will result in the entire sole of the foot touching the ground while standing.

You can attempt LEN ACADEMY'S PHE Examination Questions for JSS1 here.


Postural Defect that affects the Spine or Backbone

  • Scoliosis

A person is said to have scoliosis when the spine is slightly tilted to the left or right or both sides.

Scoliosis and Kyphosis

The curvature of the spine can occur at the upper back or thoracic region (thoracic scoliosis) or lower back or lumber region (lumbar scoliosis).

The cause of scoliosis may be hereditary or idiopathic. The term idiopathic imply that the cause is unknown.

Please read on Skeleton and Skeletal Materials here.


  • Kyphosis

A person who has kyphosis may also be considered to as having a hunchback.

Scoliosis and Kyphosis

There is an outward slope or curvature on the upper region of the backbone (that is; the posterior thoracic region of the spine) which will give rise to a conspicuous rounded upper back with a forward leaning shoulders.

Hunchback is more common in aged people although younger people can also have it.


  • Lordosis

Also called saddle back or swayback, Lordosis is a result of an inward curvature of the backbone in its upper cervical region (around the neck) and lower lumbar region.

Lordosis - Len Academy

Unlike kyphosis which appears in the upper back thoracic region, lordosis occurs in the lower back lumbar region and may result in a more conspicuous buttocks if the inward spine curvature at the lower back is excessive.


  • Kypholordosis


As the name imply, it is a combination of both kyphosis and lordosis. It presents a curvature in the spine at the posterior upper and lower region of the back.


  • Kyphoscoliosis

A person with kyphoscoliosis will have both kyphosis and scoliosis simultaneously. The spine will therefore have an abnormal curve on two planes.


The spine curvature in kyphoscoliosis will be seen side by side and anterior-posteriorly; (that is, front and back).

Please read on the Types of Bone here.


Ways to correct Postural Defects

  1. Avoid carrying too heavy loads.
    Please read on the Disadvantages of Money here.

  2. Don’t sit or stand all day long.

  3. Keep fit by exercising your muscles and bones.

  4. Practice a healthy feeding lifestyle.
    Please read on Food - Carbohydrates and Sugars here.

  5. Use pillows below your head and neck when sleeping.

  6. Avoid sleeping on stony surfaces. Use a good/firm mattress.

  7. When you walk, make your head, neck and shoulders straight.

  8. Make use of a comfortable chair and desk in the office.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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