Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
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We know for sure that plants and animals are living organisms because they fulfill all the basic characteristics necessary for life.
Below are the basic characteristics of life:
Note: Living organisms goes beyond plants and animals.
There are millions of organisms that are neither plant nor animals. Generally, the classification of organisms into kingdoms have given more insight about life. (Recall that Biology is the study of life).
As a matter of fact, anything that has life must belong to a kingdom.
Below are the kingdoms with regards to the classification of living organisms:
Please read on the Differences between Plants and Crops here.
The Swedish Botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1701 - 1778) developed the modern method of classification (called taxonomy or systematics; as listed above.
Protists are neither plants nor animals nor fungi nor bacteria; they are simply protists.
An organism belonging to kingdom protista is referred to as a protist; just as those belonging to kingdom plantae are called plants.
All protists are eukaryotic organisms. Being eukaryotic imply that their cell structure has a nucleus bordered by a membrane. They also have organelles in their cytoplasm.
Generally, protists live in an aquatic or fluidly or moist habitat.
All protists do not share similar characteristics. This is due to the fact that some are animal-like. This means that they have animal like features; for instance, their cells have a cell membrane. (All animals have a cell membrane).
Conversely, others are plant-like in the sense that they have cell wall and chloroplast; thus can manufacture their own food. (All plants have cell wall in addition to a cell membrane).
A few protists are fungi-like because they reproduce by forming spores.
Generally, all protists are commonly grouped together because they do not particularly fit into any other kingdom.
Examples of protists includes: amoeba, paramecium, euglena, chlamydomonas, plasmodium, kelp, slime molds and water molds.
Note: Some protists are single celled (unicellular) while others are colonial (form colonies) and multicellular (made up of more than one cell).
In terms of size, a few protist can be very large, for instance kelp while others are microscopic, for instance, amoeba
Protist can can be free-living (for example, amoeba) or parasitic (for example, plasmodium). A few are saprophytic.
Below is a diagram showing various Protists.
This is the ability of an organism to move from one point to another.
Although some protists are non-motile (cannot move from one point to another), others exhibit locomotion via a variety of locomotary organelles.
Below are some protists and their locomotary organelles:
Examples of non-motile protist are plasmodium and Toxoplasma gondii.
Note: Slime mold and water mold are protists that exhibit little movement.
Certain protists are photosynthetic autotrophs (that is, they can manufacture food by utilizing the energy from sunlight). Examples are euglena and algae.
Conversely, some are heterotrophic (that is, they cannot produce their own food and hence rely on readymade food). Examples are amoeba and paramecium.
The protist plasmodium is the causative agent for malaria. (It is sometimes referred to as the malaria parasite). It undergoes a parasitic kind of nutrition; which is a type of heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
Note: Some protists are both autotrophic and heterotrophic. Euglena is an example.
Most are unicellular. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena, chlamydomonas and plasmodium are examples of unicelluler protist.
A few protists are multicellular; for example, kelp, slime molds and algae.
Reproduction is typically asexual but sometimes, sexual reproduction does occur.
Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction that occurs in Amoeba.
Plasmodium falciparum may undergo sexual reproduction at some stages in it's life cycle.
They generally live in an aquatic habitat. This is usually a fresh water in most cases. Fresh water habitat include ponds, lakes, rivers and streams.
Note: Seas and Oceans are salt water. Any water body that isn't a sea or an ocean is much likely to be a fresh water.
Being eukaryotic implies that their cell structure have a well defined nucleus and cell membrane.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere