Basic Science

Drugs explained with their types and side effects

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 02nd May, 2019 @ 2:14 PM

Topics in Basic Science

What is science? Qualities of a scientist Resources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?

  • A. Anthrax

  • B. Lawnmower Disease

  • C. Onchocerciasis

  • D. Devil's Crunch

  • E. Trypanosomiasis

  • F. Tularemia

The vector for yellow fever is _____.

  • A. Aedes Mosquito

  • B. Female Anopheles Mosquito

  • C. Plasmodium

  • D. Flavivirus

  • E. Black Fly

  • F. Bacillus Anthracis

The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.

  • A. 12

  • B. 14

  • C. 16

  • D. 18

  • E. 20

  • F. 22

Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?

  • A. Stimulants

  • B. Depressants

  • C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives

  • D. Hallucinogens

  • E. Anabolic Steroids

  • F. Cannabinoids

Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?

  • A. Drugs can be inhaled

  • B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream 

  • C. Drugs can be eaten

  • D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups

  • E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue

  • F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes



What is a Drug?

A drug is defined as any substance that changes how the body functions when it is either inhaled, injected into the blood stream, eaten, dissolved under the tongue or taken with water/another liquid.

From the above definition of a drug, it can be deduced that drugs are responsible for bringing about changes in the body’s physiology (that is, how the body functions). To this end, such change can either be positive or negative.

Please read on homeostasis and negative feedback mechanism here.


When one is sick, taking a drug recommended by a certified medic can prove effective and bring about positive changes in a person’s health. In fact, at one point in our lives, we had needed drugs to make our health better; but nonetheless, we still often hear words like 'don't do drugs' on radio and television.

Note: Although drugs can make us feel better, we should not use them out of prescription since they can potentially cause adverse effects when taken in this manner.

You can read on the causes of drug abuse in adolescents here.


In this article, we will look at the types of drugs, how they can affect us and their side effects.

 

Types of Drugs

Below are the various types of drugs:


1. Stimulants

Stimulants are drugs that generally increase the workings of our nervous system. They are sometimes referred to as uppers because they stimulate and increase the body's physiologic processes.

Stimulant drugs should be used on the recommendation of a medical doctor.

They can be very useful in treating numerous ailments. However, they always have their side effects which are typically sleeplessness and weight loss.

The stimulant caffeine is present in many beverages; for instance, coffee. However, stimulant drugs can be dangerous when used in excess. They become addictive and may cause harm to the user, for example cocaine.

Please read on the uniqueness of man here.

Other examples of stimulants are ecstasy, ritalin and marijuana.


Effects of Stimulant Drugs

An abuse of a stimulant drug may result into the followings:

  • Anxiety

  • Cardiac failures

  • Psychosis

  • Seizures

  • Paranoia

 

2. Depressants

These drugs act in a negative-like manner to the stimulants. They decrease the workings of the nervous system and are thus referred to as downers (since they give a feeling of relaxation). For this reason, alcohols and tobacco are considered to be depressants.

Depressants are available as prescription drugs to relieve stress and anger, but drowsiness is often a side effect.

Depressants should be used based on recommendations from a doctor. The excessive use of this drug is not encouraged.

Please read on self-esteem and ways to overcome low self-esteem here.

Examples of depressants are barbiturates, tranquillisers, cigarettes and alcohol.


Effects of depressant drugs

  • Result in weight gain.

  • May result in low blood pressure.

  • Increased chances of Diabetes.

  • Sluggishness.

 

3. Opioids and Morphine Derivatives

Opioids and morphine derivatives relieve pains. You can think of them as pain killers.

Please read on the beauty of suffering here.

Many people have fallen victims of this drug simply because it was used without the doctor’s prescription.

Improper use of opioids may lead to addiction of the abused drug, and this can become dangerous to general health.

Examples of opoids and morphine derivatives include opium, codeine, heroin, morphine and acetaminophen.


Side effects of opioids

  • Nausea.

  • Confusion.

  • Euphoria.
  • Drowsiness.

  • Difficulty in eliminating bowel (Constiption).

 

4. Inhalants

These drugs are inhaled via the nasal or oral cavity.

Some Inhalant drugs can be very effective in treating asthma since they bring about an immediate relief. In this case, they are sniffed into the respiratory tract. The user will often get an immediate result from the drug's physiologic action.

Examples of inhalants include gum, glues, gasoline and nitrous oxide (N2O or laughing gas).


Adverse effects of inhalants

  • Damage to the nasal nerves.

  • Hallucinations.

  • Damage to the brain.

  • Affects the manner of speech.

 

5. Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens have the tendency to change the mind, resulting into an imaginary and unrealistic feelings.

Please read on reputation here.

Hallucinogenic drugs should not be taken without the recommendation of a doctor.

Examples of hallucinogens includes psilocybin and LSD.


Adverse effects of hallucinogens

  • They can affect speech and movement.

  • Abnormal hormonal changes.

  • They may result to psychosis and mental illness.

  • They can lead to fear and perception disorder.

  • They may bring about a rise in blood pressure.

 

6. Cannabinoids

These drugs are popularly referred to as cannabis. They act similarly to depressants and hallucinogens and can become addictive with time.

Although cannabis can be dangerous to health, its usage is still legal in some countries. However, self medication is highly discourage.

Please read on drug trafficking.

Examples of cannabis are hashish and marijuana


Adverse effects of Cannabis

  • A feeling of euphoria and an increased heart beat.

  • Anxiety and confusion.

  • Increased sensory functions.

  • Sedation and depression.

 

7. Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids enlarges the muscles and improve physical performance. Its usage is not recommended for professional sporting activities. In fact, some sportsmen had been ban and striped of their medal(s) for using anabolic steroids.

Please read on bones of the human skeleton here.

Examples of anabolic steroids include anadrol, dianabol and stanozol.

Negative effects of anabolic steroids include baldness and hostility.

 

8. Prescription Drugs

Prescription drugs are prescribed by a medical personnel before its use. They can become very useful when properly used; under the guidance and recommendation of a qualified physician.

Prescription drugs can be used as aids in surgery, to treat medical conditions and to control various medical symptoms.

Please read on immunization here.

However, the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs can become quite dangerous. Examples are central nervous system depressants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and other drugs prescribed by a certified medical personnel.

Note: A prescription drug can fall under any category of the aformentioned types of drugs.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

According to scientific research, if the first tear drop comes from the right eye, it’s tears of joy. If it comes from the left eye, then it is as a result of pain

Dentistry is the oldest profession in the world. This is considered true because a research conducted by the University of Bologna, Italy on a 14,000-year-old skull found that one rotten tooth in the jaw had been deliberately scoured and scraped with a dental tool

Scientific research has it that the human nose can distinguish more than a trillion different odors

Tiger fur and skin - Len Academy

Tigers have striped fur. So also is their skin

Red-Billed Quelea - Len Academy

The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion

Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water


Notable points in Basic Science

We have six classes of food. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Proteins

  3. Fats and Oils

  4. Vitamins

  5. Mineral Salts

  6. Water

In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.

Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.

As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

Please read more on food here

The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.

Matter is composed of particles which can be:

  1. Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).

  2. Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).

  3. Completely separated (as seen in gases).

The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.

An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.

You can read on the concept of matter here

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.

IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.

Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:

  • IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA

  • MA = Mental age

  • CA = Chronological age

  • IQ above 100 = Brilliance

  • IQ that equals 100 = Average

  • IQ below 100 = Below Average