Basic Science

Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 02nd May, 2019 @ 14:14

Topics in Basic Science

Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?


Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism

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What is a Drug?

A drug is defined as any substance that changes how the body functions when it's either inhaled; or injected into the blood stream; or eaten; or dissolved under the tongue; or taken with water/another liquid.

From the above definition of a drug, it can be deduced that drugs are involved in bringing about changes in the body’s physiology (that is, how the body functions). To this end, such change can either be positive or negative.

Please read on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.

When one is sick, taking a drug recommended by a certified medic can prove effective and bring about positive changes in a person’s health. In fact, at one point in our lives, we had needed drugs to make our health better; but nonetheless; we still often hear words on radio and television like “Don't do Drugs”.

Note: Although drugs can make us feel better, we should not use them as we wish because they can potentially cause adverse effects if taken excessively or out of prescription.

You can read on the Causes of Drug Abuse in Adolescents here.

In this article, we will look at the types of drugs, how they can affect us and some of their side effects.

 

Types of Drugs

Below are the various types of drugs:


  • Stimulants

Stimulants are drugs that generally increase the way our nervous system work. They are sometimes referred to as uppers because they stimulate and increase the body's physiologic processes.

Stimulant drugs should be used on the recommendation of a medical doctor.

They can be very useful in treating numerous ailments but may also bring about sleeplessness and weight loss.

The stimulant caffeine is present in many beverages; for instance, coffee. However, stimulant drugs can be dangerous when used in excess. They become addictive and may cause harm to the user, for example cocaine.

Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.

Other examples of stimulants are Ecstasy, Ritalin and Marijuana.


Effects of Stimulant Drugs

An abuse of a stimulant drug may result into the followings:

  1. Anxiety
  2. Cardiac Failures
  3. Psychosis
  4. Seizures
  5. Paranoia

 

  • Depressants

These drugs act in a negative-like manner to the stimulants. They decrease the workings of the nervous system and are thus referred to as downers; (since they give a feeling of relaxation). For this reason, alcohols and tobacco are considered to be depressants.

Normally, Depressants are available as prescription drugs to relieve stress and anger, but drowsiness is often a side effect.

Depressants should be used based on the recommendations from a doctor. The excessive use of this drug is not encouraged.

Please read on Self-esteem and ways to overcome Low Self-esteem here.

Examples of depressants are Barbiturates, Tranquillisers, Cigarettes and Alcohol.


Effects of depressant drugs:

  1. Result in weight gain.
  2. May result in low blood pressure.
  3. Increased chances of Diabetes.
  4. Sluggishness.

 

  • Opioids and Morphine Derivatives

Opioids and morphine derivatives relieve pains. (Think of them as pain killers).

Please read on the Beauty of Suffering here.

Many people had fallen victims of this drug simply because it was used without the doctor’s prescription.

Improper use of opioids may lead to addiction of the abused drug which can be dangerous to general health.

Examples of Opoids and Morphine Derivatives includes, Opium, Codeine, Heroin, Morphine and Acetaminophen.


Side effects of opioids are:

  1. A feeling of Nausea.
  2. A feeling of Confusion.
  3. Euphoria.
  4. A feeling of drowsiness.
  5. Difficulty in eliminating bowel (Constiption).

 

  • Inhalants

These drugs are inhaled via the nasal or oral cavity.

Some Inhalant drugs can be very effective in treating asthma since they bring about an immediate relief. In this case, they are sniffed into the respiratory tract. The user will normally get an immediate result from the drug's physiologic action.

Examples of inhalants are Gum, Glues, Gasoline and Nitrous Oxide (N2O or Laughing gas).

Adverse effects of inhalants:

  1. Damage to the nasal nerves.
  2. Hallucinations.
  3. Damage to the brain.
  4. Affects the manner of speech.

 

  • Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens have the tendency to change the mind; resulting in imaginary and unrealistic feelings.

Please read on Reputation and how to build a good Reputation here.

Hallucinogenic drugs must not be taken without the recommendation of a doctor.

Examples of hallucinogens includes Psilocybin and LSD.


Adverse effects of hallucinogens includes:

  1. They can affect speech and movement.
  2. Abnormal hormonal changes.
  3. They may result to psychosis and mental illness.
  4. They can lead to fear and perception disorder.
  5. They may bring about a rise in blood pressure.

 

  • Cannabinoids

These drugs are popularly referred to as cannabis. They act similarly to depressants and hallucinogens and can be very addictive.

Although cannabis can be dangerous to health, they are legalized in some countries but personally, I will discourage self use except when it's recommended by a medical doctor.

Please read on Drug Trafficking, it's Consequences and Measures put in place to Prevent it.

Examples of cannabis are Hashish and Marijuana


Adverse effects of Cannabis includes:

  1. A feeling of euphoria and an increased heart beat.
  2. Anxiety and confusion.
  3. Increased sensory functions.
  4. Sedation and Depression.

 

  • Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids enlarges the muscles and improve physical performance.

Some sportsmen had been ban and striped of their medal(s) for using anabolic steroids.

Please read on the Human Skeleton and Bones of the Human Body here.

Examples of anabolic steroids include Anadrol, Dianabol and Stanozol

Negative effects of anabolic steroids include baldness and hostility.

 

  • Prescription Drugs

Prescription drugs are prescribed by a medical personnel before it's use. They are very useful when properly used; under the guidance and recommendation of a qualified physician.

Prescription drugs can be used as aids in surgery, to treat medical conditions and to control various symptoms.

Please read on Immunization | Vaccination here.

However, the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs can be very dangerous. Examples are Central nervous system depressants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and any drug prescribed by a certified medical personnel.

Note: A prescription drug can fall under any category of the aformentioned types of drugs.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes - Len Academy

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

Cats are unable to taste sweet things

Apples float on water. Other fruits that float on water include lemons, bananas, pears, and oranges

Rain water is said to be pure because it's colorless, odourless and tasteless. Interestingly, it also contains vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired

Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your palm


NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science

Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch

  2. Glycogen

  3. Chitin

  4. Cellulose

Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here