Topics in Basic ScienceImportance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
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A drug is defined as any substance that changes how the body functions when it's either inhaled; or injected into the blood stream; or eaten; or dissolved under the tongue; or taken with water/another liquid.
From the above definition of a drug, it can be deduced that drugs are involved in bringing about changes in the body’s physiology (that is, how the body functions). To this end, such change can either be positive or negative.
When one is sick, taking a drug recommended by a certified medic can prove effective and bring about positive changes in a person’s health. In fact, at one point in our lives, we had needed drugs to make our health better; but nonetheless; we still often hear words on radio and television like “Don't do Drugs”.
Note: Although drugs can make us feel better, we should not use them as we wish because they can potentially cause adverse effects if taken excessively or out of prescription.
In this article, we will look at the types of drugs, how they can affect us and some of their side effects.
Below are the various types of drugs:
Stimulants are drugs that generally increase the way our nervous system work. They are sometimes referred to as uppers because they stimulate and increase the body's physiologic processes.
Stimulant drugs should be used on the recommendation of a medical doctor.
They can be very useful in treating numerous ailments but may also bring about sleeplessness and weight loss.
The stimulant caffeine is present in many beverages; for instance, coffee. However, stimulant drugs can be dangerous when used in excess. They become addictive and may cause harm to the user, for example cocaine.
Other examples of stimulants are Ecstasy, Ritalin and Marijuana.
An abuse of a stimulant drug may result into the followings:
These drugs act in a negative-like manner to the stimulants. They decrease the workings of the nervous system and are thus referred to as downers; (since they give a feeling of relaxation). For this reason, alcohols and tobacco are considered to be depressants.
Normally, Depressants are available as prescription drugs to relieve stress and anger, but drowsiness is often a side effect.
Depressants should be used based on the recommendations from a doctor. The excessive use of this drug is not encouraged.
Examples of depressants are Barbiturates, Tranquillisers, Cigarettes and Alcohol.
Opioids and morphine derivatives relieve pains. (Think of them as pain killers).
Many people had fallen victims of this drug simply because it was used without the doctor’s prescription.
Improper use of opioids may lead to addiction of the abused drug which can be dangerous to general health.
Examples of Opoids and Morphine Derivatives includes, Opium, Codeine, Heroin, Morphine and Acetaminophen.
These drugs are inhaled via the nasal or oral cavity.
Some Inhalant drugs can be very effective in treating asthma since they bring about an immediate relief. In this case, they are sniffed into the respiratory tract. The user will normally get an immediate result from the drug's physiologic action.
Examples of inhalants are Gum, Glues, Gasoline and Nitrous Oxide (N2O or Laughing gas).
Hallucinogens have the tendency to change the mind; resulting in imaginary and unrealistic feelings.
Hallucinogenic drugs must not be taken without the recommendation of a doctor.
Examples of hallucinogens includes Psilocybin and LSD.
These drugs are popularly referred to as cannabis. They act similarly to depressants and hallucinogens and can be very addictive.
Although cannabis can be dangerous to health, they are legalized in some countries but personally, I will discourage self use except when it's recommended by a medical doctor.
Examples of cannabis are Hashish and Marijuana
Anabolic steroids enlarges the muscles and improve physical performance.
Some sportsmen had been ban and striped of their medal(s) for using anabolic steroids.
Examples of anabolic steroids include Anadrol, Dianabol and Stanozol
Negative effects of anabolic steroids include baldness and hostility.
Prescription drugs are prescribed by a medical personnel before it's use. They are very useful when properly used; under the guidance and recommendation of a qualified physician.
Prescription drugs can be used as aids in surgery, to treat medical conditions and to control various symptoms.
However, the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs can be very dangerous. Examples are Central nervous system depressants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and any drug prescribed by a certified medical personnel.
Note: A prescription drug can fall under any category of the aformentioned types of drugs.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
Cats are unable to taste sweet things
Apples float on water. Other fruits that float on water include lemons, bananas, pears, and oranges
Rain water is said to be pure because it's colorless, odourless and tasteless. Interestingly, it also contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your palm
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.
Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.
Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose