Topics in Civic EducationCooperation and Types of Cooperation Attributes and Benefits of Honesty Meaning of Values in Civic Education Community service and its benefit Characteristics, Reasons, Effects and Solutions to Cultism Origin of Cultism in Nigeria Meaning, Causes, Consequences and Solutions to Illiteracy The Real Meaning of Honesty Scheme of work for Civic Education, SS1, 3rd Term Scheme of work for Civic Education, SS1, 2nd Term
Academic Questions in Civic Education
Cultism can be defined as an enclosed and united group of people bonded by the same belief and course. An individual involved in cultism is called a cultist and such is said to belong to a cult. Since their meetings and other related activities are done in the hidden (and away from non-members), their members are often referred to as belonging to a secrete cult.
It all began in 1952 when Wole Soyinka (now a professor and noble price winner) and some of his friends (about six in numbers) decided to distinguish themselves from every other student in the prestigious University of Ibadan. They called themselves the pyrates and magnificent seven. They had the motto “Against all conventions” with the logo of a skull and two limbs bone crossed in the form of X. At that time, many of the students in the university were children of the elite and they showed this in their stylish and extravagant lifestyles. As usual, the poor students were doing the catch-up in terms of their dressing and charisma. The magnificent seven (pyrates) in the course of distinguishing themselves, also intended to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor while also promoting social justice within the university. Through their acts, the pyriates became so popular and respected. Many students took interest in becoming a member of the pyrates but were denied acceptance due to their unbendable rules and standard; although a few male students with potentials were granted membership regardless their tribe.
For a long time, the pyrates were successful with regards to their vision and accomplishment until 1972 when a disagreement arose between the top members of this group. Eventually, one of the top members named Dr. B. Carew was expelled because he was considered to have gone against the standard of the pyrates. Because of this expulsion, the pyrates had to change its name to “National Association of Sea Dogs” by registering it with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Nigeria. Dr. Carew went ahead to establish the Buccaneers which became registered with the same name as “National Association of Sea Dogs” under the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Nigeria.
The National Association of Sea Dogs (formerly pyrates) maintained their academic and intellectual standard, thus were not able to recruit much students while others were expelled. These acts lead to the formation of other groups due to their strict policies. The Supreme Eiye Confraternity (also referred to “National Association of Air Lords”) was formed in 1975 at the University of Ibadan. The Eiye had an aim of preserving the culture of the Yoruba land and was considered to be a cultural association at that time. They had the motto “No feather, No Bird”. The term “Eiye” in Yoruba means “bird”.
The Black Axe confraternity also referred to as “The Neo-Black Movement of Africa” was formed in University of Benin, Edo State.
It was in 1983 that students of the University of Calabar founded the Eternal Fraternal Order of the Legion Consortium (the Klan Konfraternity). Within a year, the Supreme Vikings Confraternity also referred to as "the Adventurers or De Norsemen Club" came into being.
The military regime at that time encouraged violent activities from these fraternities. After General IBB took over government via a coup, tensions within the country were raised. As a result, these fraternities were used as agents to check on the student union government and staff of the various universities since these were in opposition to the military rule. During this time, Wole Soyinke made an open declaration that the National Association of Sea Dogs should no longer operate within the campus of any Nigerian University. The various confraternities present at that time used the weapons that were granted them to fight deadly battles among themselves with the sole aim of “supremacy”.
Democratic rule returned to Nigeria during which amnesty was granted to each cult member, with the aim of putting an end to cultism in Nigerian Universities. This seemed to have worked since cultist activities were drastically reduced in the universities. Meanwhile, the cultist moved their meetings outside the university campus only to return after some while; because the government and university authorities could not provide sufficient facilities to combat cultism in their universities. Now those who had initially renounced their cults during the time of amnesty became more vulnerable. Their option of protection was to return to their respective cult groups as many were accepted back. Many cults became established within and outside of the various university campuses as a result. Some of these includes:
Brotherhood of the Blood (also called the black beret or Two-two)
Second Son of Satan (SSS)
Dreaded Friend of Friends
Kampus Killers (KK) and so on.
Some female also formed their cult groups which included:
Temple of Eden
Daughters of Jezebel and so on
Right now, measures are being put in place by the Nigerian Government and various tertiary institutions to combat cultism.
Amazing facts in Civic Education
NOTABLE POINTS IN Civic Education
All human beings are entitled to their rights (Human Rights); but the truth is, we still have got some limitations to some of these Human Rights. Below are 4 limitations: