Government

Arms of government explained

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 09th May, 2019 @ 1:58 PM

Topics in Government

Political power: Sources of political power Concept of power in government Functions of the executive arm of government Facts on Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy One-party system explained with its advantages and disadvantages What is Democracy? Definitions of Democracy Types of Government Functions of the Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System What are pressure groups? Types of pressure group Characteristics of Pressure Group Types of Constitution Scope of Government Characteristics of Government Importance of Government One-party system explained with its types and characteristics


Academic Questions in Government

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Which of the following is not a function of government?

  • A. Government provides all the jobs in the country they govern

  • B. Government empowers the less privilege and the physically challenged

  • C. Government provides a support system for the aged

  • D. Government provides infrastructure for her citizens

  • E. Government maintains external relations with other countries

  • F. Government generates revenue for the country they govern

In government, a type of one-party system whereby a single party is officially and legally recognized in a country or state is termed a _____.

  • A. Hegemonic Party

  • B. Pre-Dominant Party

  • C. Dominant Party

  • D. True Single-State

  • E. Unique-Ordered State

  • F. State-Exclusive Party

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the multi-party system?

  • A. There is an existence of several parties differing in principles and fundamentals.

  • B. The political parties are legally recognized.

  • C. It is democratic in nature.

  • D. Among the various parties, only one dominates the political landscape.

  • E. Some of the opposition parties can become politically insignificant.

  • F. It promotes the coalition of governments.

In a two-party system,  only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.

  • A. True

  • B. False

On February 25, 2023; Nigeria as a country had its presidential election. The party system involved in this election is the _____.

  • A. Zero Party System

  • B. One-Party System

  • C. Two-Party System

  • D. Multi-Party System

  • E. APC, PDP and LP Party System

  • F. Coalition Party System

The following countries practice a zero party system except _____.

  • A. Cambodia

  • B. Vatican City

  • C. Bahrain

  • D. Saudi Arabia

  • E. Oman

  • F. Kuwait

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?

  • A. It is democratic in nature

  • B. There isn't a third party

  • C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain

  • D. The president must emerge from one of both parties

  • E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press

  • F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory



Arms of Government:

The arms of government (also referred to as organs of government or branches of government) are:

  1. Executive
  2. Legislature
  3. Judiciary

These three arms of government serves as a separation of power. The term 'separation of power' implies that they carry out their distinct (separate) functions and responsibilities in accordance with the nation's constitution.

Please read more on constitution here.


Below are explanations on the three arms of government:


1. Executive

The president, who is the number one citizen of a country and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the head of the executive arm of government. It is the responsibility of the executive to enforce or execute the law.

Please read on the responsibilities, duties and obligations of a citizen here.


The president is always expected to have a cabinet consisting of various members whom he works with. For instance, the president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari (2019) will have a cabinet that will include the followings:

  1. Vice president
  2. Ministers: They head various executive departments like sports, agriculture, finance and so on. These aforementioned ministries are headed by the minister of sports, minister of agriculture and minister of finance respectively.
  3. Members of the Federal Executive Council (FEC): The president is the head of the federal executive council.
  4. Federal Agencies: In Nigeria, the federal agencies include:

In a democratic system of government, the president, state governors and local government chairmen must win the majority of votes during election before they can assume their respective offices as executive officers.

Please read on democracy and its characteristics here.

In a country like Nigeria, an elected president can serve a maximum of eight years (two terms). The vice president is simultaneously elected with the president with regards to their political party during the electoral process. Therefore, the vice president is never appointed in a democratic system of government.

Please read on the types of democracy here.

When the president leaves the country, the vice president automatically serves in the capacity of the president until the president returns.

 

2. Legislature

The legislature is a group of elected persons who are required to make law.

In Nigeria, the legislature consist of the bicameral national assembly which comprises:

  1. The upper house or chamber (Senate)
  2. The lower house or chamber (House of Representatives)

In Nigeria, three members of each state comprises the senator for that respective state with one member from the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). For this reason, the Nigerian senate comprises of 109 senators (since it has 36 states excluding the FCT).

Note: There are 36 states in Nigeria as at 2019. Three senators represents each of their constituent state. Meanwhile, the house of representative is comprised of 360 members.

Please read on the Nigerian national symbols here.


The senate, house of representative or the presidency can initiate a bill. The point to remember is: 'a bill must pass through both houses before it can become a law'.

The head of the senate is referred to as the senate president while that of the house of representative is referred to as the speaker. Both must be elected within their respective houses alongside their deputies.


Meanwhile, understand that an impeachment proceedings can only be initiated by the lower house (house of representatives). Consequently, the senate will not be able to impeach any federal officer (including the president) unless the house of representative put forward the impeachment charges.

Conversely, the house of representative cannot impeach, neither do they have any say in the decision to remove an executive from office. It is the responsibility of the senate to try, convict, and remove the president or other impeachable federal officers.


It is the responsibility of the house to suggest, debate on and pass bills which may become a law.


For a bill to be passed into law, it must be approved by a minimum of 2/3rd majority from both the senate and house of representative.

Please read on the functions of the executive, legislative and judiciary here.

 

3. Judiciary

The judiciary is an independent arm of government whose power is enforced in the courts.

Like the executive and legislature, they function under the guidance of the constitution.

According to the hierarchies, the courts comprising the judiciary include:

  1. Supreme Court
  2. Court of Appeal
  3. Federal High Court
  4. High Court of the Federal Capital Territory
  5. State High Court
  6. National Industrial Court
  7. Sharia Court of Appeal
  8. Customary Court of Appeal
  9. Magistrate Courts
  10. District Courts

The Chief Justice (CJ) is the head of the supreme court. In Nigeria, the chief justice is referred to as the CJN (Chief Justice of Nigeria).

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Amazing facts in Government

The shortest war ever lasted for just 38 minutes. This is the Anglo-Zanzibar War in 1896

174 world leaders signed the Paris Agreement on Earth Day in 2016 at the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York. This agreement presents the largest number of countries ever to come together to sign anything on a single day. The agreement aims to combat climate change, accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed to strengthen the global climate effort

United States of America is comprised of fifty states and Washington D.C.

The letter 'q' is not present in any of the American states

White House in Washington has 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms while Buckingham Palace in London has 775 rooms, including 78 bathrooms

Three United States presidents; John Adams (2nd US president), Thomas Jefferson (3rd US president), and James Monroe (5th US president) died on the 4th of July.

Coincidentally, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson also died the same year, and that's 1826.

Abraham Lincoln, the great human emancipator, freedom fighter and 16th American president was popular for the saying:

Government of the people, by the people and for the people

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States of America was a professional wrestler before he assumed the office of the American President. Interestingly, he was only defeated once in his wrestling career


Notable points in Government

Ecclesiocracy is a form of government whereby religious leaders are recognized as the first citizens of a state.

The religious leaders in ecclesiocracy do not proclaim themselves as a direct instrument of divine revelation concerning laws governing the society.

A typical example of ecclesiocracy is seen in Vatican City where the pope presides as the leader of the state. However, the pope does not claim to receive direct revelation from God concerning civil laws.

The grand Ayatollah of Iran (Ali Khamenei) and president of Sudan, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir are also considered as instances of leaders in ecclesiocracy.

It is worthy of note to state that the laws and rules governing the land in ecclesiocracy are based on religious beliefs, thus making it somewhat related to theocracy.

One of the duties of the government is to make laws that govern the society. Without laws, some of the rich may oppress the poor. Similarly, some of the highly placed in the society may end up oppressing the weak without being brought to justice.

The absence of government in a society, country, nation, state or community is referred to as anarchy.

An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.

Please read on the forms of government here

Below are some of the functions of government:

  • It is the role of the government to protect and defend the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

  • The government maintains law and order through the law enforcement agencies. These will include the police, customs officers and other local securities.

  • It is the duty of the government to generate revenue. This can be achieved through foreign trade.

  • It is the responsibility of the government to maintain external relations with other countries. For this reason, the president may visit other countries for business and bilateral trade purposes. Similarly, other presidents may visit your country in this regard.

  • Please read on the functions of government here

Government can be defined under the following headings:

1. As an institution of a state.

Government is defined as an institution, agency, machinery or instrument that is established to manage the affairs of general welfare of the people making up a state or country

 

2. As a process or as an act of governing.

Government is defined as the processes and methods involved in the formulation, administration and implementation of public policies from a procedure which had been specifically spelt out in the constitution of a country or state

 

3. As an academic field of study.

Government is defined as the study of institutions, theories, ideas, values and doctrines as relating to the acquisition and use of political power for the welfare of the people

Please read more on the definitions of government here

End Sars - Len Academy

The End Sars is considered a pressure group in Nigeria. It campaigned in the interest of Nigerian youths, thus forcing the Nigerian government into scrapping the Special Anti-Robbery Squard (SARS) who had constantly brutalized Nigerians, especially the youths; through extortion, indiscriminate shootings, threats and other violent conducts.

Unfortunately, some Nigerian youths paid the ultimate price with their lives at the Lekki tollgate massacre. This happened on the 20th day of October, 2020.

Burna Boy, a Nigerian musician made a song titled '20 : 10 : 20' in this regard.

Please read on pressure groups in Nigeria here