Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 11th May, 2019 @ 8:59 PM

Topics in ICT

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Academic Questions in ICT

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What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

The term _____ describes the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet.

  • A. Internet of Everything

  • B. Internet of Physical Devices

  • C. Internet of Things

  • D. Internet of Objects

  • E. Internetworking

  • F. Internetworking of Objects

A globally interconnected network system that utilizes TCP and IP to transmit data via various media is the _____.

  • A. World Wide Web (www)

  • B. Http

  • C. Https

  • D. Https://www

  • E. LAN

  • F. Internet

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The above image shows the _____ in a computer.

  • A. Expansion slot

  • B. Hard Disc Drive

  • C. Optical Drive

  • D. Power Supply Unit

  • E. Motherboard

  • F. Synchronous Dynamic Ram

The clock speed of a computer is the speed at which the _____.

  • A. HDD saves data

  • B. FDS saves data

  • C. SSD saves data

  • D. GPU receives and sends data

  • E. CPU processes data

  • F. RAM transfers data



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Internet of Things (IoT):

Our world at the moment is a global village and all thanks to the internet. Think of the internet as a public network where anyone from any part of the world can connect to through a computer or phone or some other internet enabled devices.

As an instance; you are able to read this article on this academic blog (Len Academy) because you have a device that is connected to a network (probably through your service provider or some wireless network).

Your internet service provider (ISP) connects you to every information located on the world wide web (www) through the internet.

In short, you are able to read this article located on the internet because your device is connected to one of the billions of web servers around the world (world wide web) where this article is being stored.

Please read on the world wide web (www) and the internet here.

Now, with the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT), anything (be it a cup, towel, book, fan, window, bulb, headphones, clothes and even humans) will become connected to the internet. This is the direction to which our world is moving towards.

Note: Every connected thing will be considered to be smart. At the time of writing this article (2019), we do have smart phones, smart cars, smart watches and some few other smart devices.

  • By definition, Internet of Things refers to the billions of physical devices (things) around our world that will be connected to the internet.

These 'things' in (IoT) will constantly collect and share data, giving rise to a term called the big data and data analytics.

The internet of things will be considered as the 4th industrial revolution since it will give rise to technologies like smart homes, smart roads, smart windows, smart coffee maker, smart clothes and so on.

Let me give you an instance of what the Internet of Things era would look like using a smart bridge and a smart car as point of references.

  • Imagine that we have a smart bridge that is in heavy use by smart vehicles. The bridge and the vehicle are considered smart because they are connected to the internet.

    Whenever heavy traffic is present on this smart bridge; smart cars moving towards the direction of the smart bridge will get information or notifications from the smart bridge concerning the heavy traffic.

    This communication occurs through internet because both the bridge and cars are 'smart'; that is, both are connected to the internet.

Now, Let imagine that the information sent by the smart bridge states;

Hey smart car, please don’t make your way through me because I’m chocked up right now. You may use other alternative routes to your destination since they haven't got any traffic.

The alternative routes are 'bridge A, bridge B, bridge Y and bridge Z' respectively.

...From the smart bridge

The drivers of these smart cars would get the above notifications, thus allowing them to avoid the route with heavy traffic.

But another question is:

  • What if the drivers disregard the notifications from the smart cars and decides to go through the smart bridge even though it has got a heavy traffic?

Well, to answer the above question; as far as the drivers keep driving towards the smart bridge, more notifications will be sent to their smart cars from the smart bridge. A point will be reached when the smart car will automatically stop by itself, while also sending a notification directly to the driver that may read something like:

Hey, you were warned about the impending traffic on the bridge but you would not listen, well at this point I will no longer move unless you reverse and take the alternate route with less traffic.

...From the smart car

At this point, the driver will need to take the alternate route until the traffic on the smart bridge subsides.

You can read on routers and their functions here.

Let’s consider another quick example with humans as our point of reference:

Imagine that the heart and blood of a diabetic patient had been connected to the internet.

As soon as the blood pressure of this patient rises, his doctor will immediately get the notification on his phone or any other computer device; and that’s very good for medicine.

On the part of the patient, he may not even be aware that he just had a rise in his blood pressure at that time.

Please read on arterial disorders and its characteristics here.

Internet of Things will also result into innovations like:

  • Self driving cars.
  • Self coffee making jar.
  • Self opening and closing windows, (depending on the temperature of the room) and so on.

With Internet of Things, a smart thermostat can help us heat our homes before we arrive back on a cold day.

Also, a smart phone can be used to switch off a home bulb right from the office. This is made possible because the home bulb and phone are both connected to the internet.

In the era of IoT, we will have smart cities, smart education, smart offices, smart grids for electricity, smart televisions, smart speakers and so on.

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How are things connected in IoT?

To summarize the answer to this question, things that will be considered smart will be composed of tiny chips called sensors.

The sensors will be attached to these potentially smart things (like the bulb, coffee-maker, windows, humans and so on) so that they can sense or receive information around their environment.

A connection will be made on these 'smart' things to the internet; so that they can share whatever information that is being received from their environment via their respective sensors.

You can read on computer networks here.

  • Presently, there are more things connected than the number of people living on earth.
  • According to reports, around 8.4 billion IoT devices were in use in 2017.
  • China, North America and Western Europe accounted for two third of these connected smart things.

Note: The reality of internet of things had been made possible as a result of a large pool of internet protocol (IP) addresses through the IPv6 protocol.

Please read on the network layer of the OSI model for internetworking here.


Challanges of IoT

The Internet of Things has got its own fair share of challenges. Below are two crucial concerns for IoT:

  1. The biggest issue and concern on the Internet of Things technology is its security. For example, hacking into the sensors controlling a traffic grid can become catastrophic. This is true because driverless cars are utilized in this instance.

  2. Another arising issue is the increasing amount of toxic waste that may be emitted from billions of IoT devices.

  3. Please read more on air pollution here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in ICT

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

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Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:


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Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on computer networks here

The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here