Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 11th May, 2019 @ 20:59

Topics in ICT

Routers, Types and Functions of Routers Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Computer Networks and Types of Computer Network Domain Name System: How DNS works and Types of DNS Servers Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on your android phone Best Programming Languages to learn Internet and World Wide Web - Notable Dates and Events on Internet Evolution Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware

Academic Questions in ICT

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The term SOHO is best represented as a _____.

  • A. LAN
  • B. WAN
  • C. CAN
  • D. PAN
  • E. MAN
  • F. SAN

Which of the following is NOT a function of the router?

  • A.To ensure that packets make it to their destination networks
  • B. To separate networks
  • C. To move traffic to the end devices within a LAN
  • D. To ensure some form of data security
  • E. To connect networks
  • F. To assist in connecting a home network to the internet

An example of a network that spans the entire globe is the _____.

  • A. LAN
  • B. PAN
  • C. MAN
  • D. CAN
  • E. NAN

A specialized router residing at the boundary of a company's network is called a/an _____.

  • A. Wired Router
  • B. Wireless Router
  • C. Core Router
  • D. Edge Router
  • E. Virtual Router
  • F. LAN Router
  • G. WAN Router

Which of the following is NOT a type of computer network?

  • A. NAN
  • B. MAN
  • C. CAN
  • D. LAN
  • E. WAN
  • F. PAN

Personal Area Network - Len Academy

The above diagram best illustrate a _____.

  • A. LAN
  • B. WAN
  • C. CAN
  • D. MAN
  • E. PAN
  • F. NAN

The layer 3 device that move packets between devices, allowing Network communication is called a _____.

  • A. Switch
  • B. Router
  • C. Firewall
  • D. Computer
  • E. Smart phone
  • F. Central Procession Unit



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Internet of Things (IoT):

Our world at the moment is a global village and all thanks to the internet.

Consider the internet to be a public network where anyone from any part of the world can connect to (through a computer or phone or some other devices).

As an instance; you are able to read this article on our academic blog (LEN ACADEMY) because you have a device that is connected to a network (probably through your service provider or some wireless network).

Your service provider connects you to every information located on the web through the internet.

Please read on the Differences between the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) here.

In short, your device is connected to the web server (World Wide Web or www) where this article is being stored through the internet.

Now, with the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT), anything (be it a cup, towel, book, fan, window, bulb, headphones, clothes and even humans) will become connected to the internet. This is the direction to which our world is moving towards.

Note: Every connected thing will be considered to be smart. At present, we do have smart phones, smart cars, smart watches and some few other smart devices.

By definition, Internet of Things refers to the billions of physical devices (things) around our world that will be connected to the internet.

These things will constantly collect and share data, giving rise to a term called the Big Data and Data Analytics.

Note: The internet of things will be considered as the 4th Industrial Revolution since it will give rise to technologies like smart home, smart roads, smart windows, smart coffee maker and so on.

Let me give you an instance of what the Internet of Things (IoT) era would look like using a smart bridge and a smart car as point of references.

  • Imagine that we have a smart bridge that is in heavy use by smart vehicles . (The bridge and the vehicle are considered smart because they are connected to the internet).

    Whenever heavy traffic is present on this smart bridge; smart cars moving towards the direction of the smart bridge will get information or notifications from the smart bridge concerning the heavy traffic.

    This communication occurs through internet because both the bridge and cars are smart (connected to the internet).

Now, Let imagine that the information sent by the smart bridge states;

Hey smart car, please don’t make your way through me because I’m chocked up right now. You may use other alternative routes to your destination since they haven't got any traffic.

The alternative routes are "bridge A, bridge B, bridge Y and bridge Z

...From the Smart Bridge.

The drivers of these smart cars would get the notifications through their smart car thus allowing them to avoid the route with heavy traffic.

But another question is:

  • What if the drivers disregard the notifications from the smart cars and decided to go through the smart bridge even though it has got a heavy traffic?

Well, to answer the above question; as far as the drivers keep driving towards the smart bridge, more notifications will be sent to their smart cars from the smart bridge. A point will be reached when the smart car will automatically stop by itself, while also sending a notification directly to the driver that may read something like:

Hey, you were warned about the impending traffic on the bridge but you would not listen, well at this point I will no longer move unless you reverse and take the alternate route with less traffic.

...From the Smart Car.

At this point, the driver will need to take the alternate route until the traffic on the smart bridge subsides.

Please read on Routers and their Functions here.

Let’s consider another quick example with humans as our point of reference:

Imagine that the heart and blood of a diabetic patient had been connected to the internet.

As soon as the blood pressure of this patient rises, his doctor will immediately get the notification on his phone or any other computer device; and that’s very good for medicine.

On the part of the patient, he may not even be aware that he just had a rise in his blood pressure at that time.

Please read on Arterial Disorders and its Characteristics here.

Internet of Things will also result to innovations like:

  • Self driving cars.
  • Self coffee making jar.
  • Self opening and closing windows. (Depending on the temperature of the room) and so on.

With Internet of Things, a smart thermostat can help us heat our homes before we arrive back on a cold day.

Also, a smart phone can be used to switch off a home bulb right from the office. This is made possible because the the home bulb and phone are both connected to the internet.

In the era of Internet of Things, we will have smart cities, smart education, smart offices, smart grids for electricity, smart televisions, smart speakers and so on.

You can read on Computer Hardware, it various parts and functions here.


Connection of Things to the internet in IoT

To summarize the answer to this question, things that will be considered smart will be composed of tiny chips called sensors.

The sensors will be attached to these potentially smart things (like the bulb, coffee-maker, windows, humans and so on) so that they can sense or receive information around their environment.

A connection will be made on these smart things to the internet; so that they can share whatever information that is being received from their environment via the sensors.

Please read on Computer Networks here.

  • Presently, there are more things connected than the number of people living on earth.
  • According to reports, around 8.4 billion IoT devices were in use in 2017.
  • China, North America and Western Europe accounted for two third of these smart connected things.

Note: The reality of internet of things had been made possible as a result of a very large pool of IP addresses through the IPv6 protocol.

Please read on the Network Layer of the OSI model for Internetworking here.


Two Challanges of IoT

  1. The biggest issue/concern on the Internet of Things technology is security. For instance, hacking into the sensors controlling a traffic grid can become catastrophic when driverless cars are involved.

  2. Another arising issue is the increasing amount of toxic waste that may be emitted from the numerous IoT devices.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in ICT

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:


Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies are GOOGLE, AMAZON, FACEBOOK, APPLE and MICROSOFT

Please read on Notable dates on internet evolution here.


Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on Computer Networks here

The internet and the World Wide Web (www) IS NOT the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on Geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on Geographical Size here

Functions of a Router

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the internet (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on Types and Functions of Router here