Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 11th May, 2019 @ 8:59 PM

Topics in ICT

Introduction to routers in networking Wired router and wireless router explained What are core routers in networking? Virtual routers explained with its configuration Edge router explained with its types Domain Name System explained Types of computer network Functions of a router Computer scheme of work, SS1, First Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Second Term Computer scheme of work, SS1, Third Term Introduction to computer networks Types of DNS server Open Systems Interconnect: Layers of the OSI Model Internet of Things (IoT), How IoT works, its advantages and challenges How to consume less data on android phone Best programming languages to learn The internet and world wide web explained Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware

Academic Questions in ICT

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

DNS belongs to layer _____ of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking.

  • A. One

  • B. Two

  • C. Three

  • D. Four

  • E. Five

  • F. Six

  • G. Seven

Which of the following DNS servers receive queries directly from computers, phones and other client devices?

  • A. Root Nameserver

  • B. Top Level Domain (TLD) Nameserver

  • C. Bottom Level Domain (BLD) Nameserver

  • D. Authoritative Nameserver

  • E. Direct Nameserver

  • F. Recursive DNS Server

The uppermost layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model of networking is the _____ layer.

  • A. Physical

  • B. Application

  • C. Network

  • D. Transport

  • E. Data Link

  • F. Presentation

Concerning the internet of things, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. Humans will become connected to the internet through the internet of things

  • B. It refers to the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet

  • C. Big data is associated with the internet of things

  • D. Presently, we have more humans living on earth that things connected to the internet

  • E. China, North America and Europe accounts for over two thirds of internet connected things

  • F. The ultimate goal of the Internet of things will be made a reality through IPv6

What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

Internet of Things (IoT):

Our world at the moment is a global village and all thanks to the internet. Think of the internet as a public network where anyone from any part of the world can connect to through a computer or phone or some other internet enabled devices.

As an instance; you are able to read this article on this academic blog (Len Academy) because you have a device that is connected to a network (probably through your service provider or some wireless network).

Your internet service provider (ISP) connects you to every information located on the world wide web (www) through the internet.

In short, you are able to read this article located on the internet because your device is connected to one of the billions of web servers around the world (world wide web) where this article is being stored.

Please read on the world wide web (www) and the internet here.

Now, with the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT), anything (be it a cup, towel, book, fan, window, bulb, headphones, clothes and even humans) will become connected to the internet. This is the direction to which our world is moving towards.

Note: Every connected thing will be considered to be smart. At the time of writing this article (2019), we do have smart phones, smart cars, smart watches and some few other smart devices.

  • By definition, Internet of Things refers to the billions of physical devices (things) around our world that will be connected to the internet.

These 'things' in (IoT) will constantly collect and share data, giving rise to a term called the big data and data analytics.

The internet of things will be considered as the 4th industrial revolution since it will give rise to technologies like smart homes, smart roads, smart windows, smart coffee maker, smart clothes and so on.

Let me give you an instance of what the Internet of Things era would look like using a smart bridge and a smart car as point of references.

  • Imagine that we have a smart bridge that is in heavy use by smart vehicles. The bridge and the vehicle are considered smart because they are connected to the internet.

    Whenever heavy traffic is present on this smart bridge; smart cars moving towards the direction of the smart bridge will get information or notifications from the smart bridge concerning the heavy traffic.

    This communication occurs through internet because both the bridge and cars are 'smart'; that is, both are connected to the internet.

Now, Let imagine that the information sent by the smart bridge states;

Hey smart car, please don’t make your way through me because I’m chocked up right now. You may use other alternative routes to your destination since they haven't got any traffic.

The alternative routes are 'bridge A, bridge B, bridge Y and bridge Z' respectively.

...From the smart bridge

The drivers of these smart cars would get the above notifications, thus allowing them to avoid the route with heavy traffic.

But another question is:

  • What if the drivers disregard the notifications from the smart cars and decides to go through the smart bridge even though it has got a heavy traffic?

Well, to answer the above question; as far as the drivers keep driving towards the smart bridge, more notifications will be sent to their smart cars from the smart bridge. A point will be reached when the smart car will automatically stop by itself, while also sending a notification directly to the driver that may read something like:

Hey, you were warned about the impending traffic on the bridge but you would not listen, well at this point I will no longer move unless you reverse and take the alternate route with less traffic.

...From the smart car

At this point, the driver will need to take the alternate route until the traffic on the smart bridge subsides.

You can read on routers and their functions here.

Let’s consider another quick example with humans as our point of reference:

Imagine that the heart and blood of a diabetic patient had been connected to the internet.

As soon as the blood pressure of this patient rises, his doctor will immediately get the notification on his phone or any other computer device; and that’s very good for medicine.

On the part of the patient, he may not even be aware that he just had a rise in his blood pressure at that time.

Please read on arterial disorders and its characteristics here.

Internet of Things will also result into innovations like:

  • Self driving cars.
  • Self coffee making jar.
  • Self opening and closing windows, (depending on the temperature of the room) and so on.

With Internet of Things, a smart thermostat can help us heat our homes before we arrive back on a cold day.

Also, a smart phone can be used to switch off a home bulb right from the office. This is made possible because the home bulb and phone are both connected to the internet.

In the era of IoT, we will have smart cities, smart education, smart offices, smart grids for electricity, smart televisions, smart speakers and so on.

You can check out Len Academy smart school system here.


How are things connected in IoT?

To summarize the answer to this question, things that will be considered smart will be composed of tiny chips called sensors.

The sensors will be attached to these potentially smart things (like the bulb, coffee-maker, windows, humans and so on) so that they can sense or receive information around their environment.

A connection will be made on these 'smart' things to the internet; so that they can share whatever information that is being received from their environment via their respective sensors.

You can read on computer networks here.

  • Presently, there are more things connected than the number of people living on earth.
  • According to reports, around 8.4 billion IoT devices were in use in 2017.
  • China, North America and Western Europe accounted for two third of these connected smart things.

Note: The reality of internet of things had been made possible as a result of a large pool of internet protocol (IP) addresses through the IPv6 protocol.

Please read on the network layer of the OSI model for internetworking here.


Challanges of IoT

The Internet of Things has got its own fair share of challenges. Below are two crucial concerns for IoT:

  1. The biggest issue and concern on the Internet of Things technology is its security. For example, hacking into the sensors controlling a traffic grid can become catastrophic. This is true because driverless cars are utilized in this instance.

  2. Another arising issue is the increasing amount of toxic waste that may be emitted from billions of IoT devices.

  3. Please read more on air pollution here.

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Amazing facts in ICT

1,000 computers are used to retrieve the answers to your Google search (query) in 0.2 seconds

The first hand-held mobile phone call was made in New York City on April 3rd, 1973

The logo for gmail was designed the night before it was launched

Coca Cola owns all the domain names (website names) that can be read as ahh. They include: ahh.com, ahhh.com, ahhhh.com, ahhhhh.com, ahhhhhh.com and so on..., all the way up to 62 'h's!

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:


Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :






Notable points in ICT

Python is one of the most popular programming languages, and will still remain relevant for a long time.

Python can be used for almost every kind of project including web application, machine learning, mobile and desktop applications, networking servers, APIs, scrapers, application’s backend and so on.

There is a great availability of third-party libraries for the python language. For this reason, it becomes one one of the easiest languages to learn as a beginner.

Believe it or not, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) still remains one of the most popular backend language for web applications, even though it is currently facing a stiff competition from python language.

Content Management Systems (CMS) like wordpress and drupal are written in PHP for its backend. Interestingly, some of facebook’s backend were also written in PHP.

As at 2019, the backend of more than 40% of active websites are powered with PHP. In fact, Len Academy is also powered by PHP for its backend.

If you wish to manipulate databases via Structured Query Language (SQL) with a programming language that has dynamic capabilities, then PHP is your language of choice.

Please read on the best programming languages to lean here

Below are notable dates on internet evolution:

  • 1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) created the '.com .edu .gov .org and .net' systems for naming websites

  • 1985: The first registered domain name - 'symbolics.com' came into existence

  • 1992: The first audio and video were uploaded over the internet

  • 1992: The phrase 'surfing the Internet' became popular

  • 1993: The number of websites reached 600

  • 1993: White House and United Nations go online

  • 1994: Microsoft creates a Web browser for Windows 95

  • 1994: Yahoo! is created by Jerry Yang and David Filo

  • 1995 Amazon and eBay were launched online

  • 1996: 'The Dancing Baby' becomes the first viral internet video

  • 1997: Netflix is founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph

  • 1998: Google search engine came into existence

  • 2003: The worm 'SQL Slammer' spread over the internet within 10 minutes

  • 2004: Facebook goes online

Please read more notable dates on internet evolution here

Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.

Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.

When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.

Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:

  • Motherboard

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

  • Power supply Unit (PSU)

  • Northbridge

  • Southbridge

  • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots

  • Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Ventilation fans

  • Heat sink

  • Hard Disc Drive (external present)
  • Solid State Drive (SSD)

  • CMOS battery

  • Optical Disc Drives (external present)

  • USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports

  • Expansion Ports / Slots

Please read more on computer hardware here

Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:

  1. Input devices: They provide information to the computer.

  2. Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.

  3. Storage devices: They store information or data.

Below are examples of some peripherals:

  • Keyboard (input)

  • Monitor (output)

  • Mouse (input)

  • Webcam (input)

  • Touch Pad (input)

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)

  • Hard disc drive (storage)

  • Stylus (input)

  • Joystick(input)

  • Printer (output)

  • Speaker (output)

  • Headphones (output)