Agricultural Science

Agricultural Terms and Definition, I - O

Biola Emmanuel - Tue, 14th May, 2019 @ 03:53: AM

Agricultural Terms, Letters I - O:



This is the process of keeping eggs under controlled conditions of temperature and moisture in order to make them hatch.

Note: It takes turkeys 28 days and chicks 21 days to hatch.


Integrated pest management (IPM)

IPM involves the use of biological, chemical, and cultural control tactics to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly, and socially acceptable. Please read our article on pest of Agricultural importance HERE.

Note: The goal is to minimize the excessive use of chemicals in controlling pest on agricultural land. You may read our article on agricultural land HERE.



This a a process of ensuring control on all or some of the various stages of production within a specific organization.


Identity preserved (IP)

This is the identification and maintenance of seed with specific traits or characteristics because of their competitive advantage.


Lactation Period

This is the duration of time a female animal gives milk to its offspring.

Note: This term is usually associated to dairy cows and milk goats.



This is a female chicken that produces eggs regularly.

Note: A layer should produce between 19 and 20 dozen eggs in a year.



This is a process of removal or loss of soluble soil materials/nutrients by the passage of water through soil.

Note: The dissolved soil nutrients are completely lost in leaching.



This is a type of plant that has nodules formed by bacteria on its roots. The bacteria that produce these nodules take nitrogen from the air and pass it on into the plant for the plant to use.

Note: Leguminous plants are important in crop rotation. Examples are beans, soybeans and sweet clover.



The offspring born at the same time by one sow (The offspring are more than one).

Note: A sow is an adult female pig.



This is any animal domesticated for meat or money or other market purposes. Examples are beef and dairy cattle, sheep, goats and chickens.



These are essential nutrients/elements needed by plants in relatively large amount. They include:

  • N (Nitrogen)
  • P (Phosphorus)
  • K (Potassium)
  • Mg (Magnesium)
  • Ca (Calcium)
  • S (Sulfur)



They are generally animal excreta and straw. They also include refuse from stables.



This is an adult/mature female horse.


Marginal Land

This is a land that is unproductive for farming.



This is a disease of the cow’s udder as a result of infections from pathogens. This infection may result from improper milking procedures.



A micronutrient is considered to be an essential or important nutrient (elements) that is needed by plants in minute or small quantities.  The micronutrients are: 

  • Mn (Manganese)
  • Zn (Zinc)
  • Cl (Chlorine)
  • Fe (Iron)
  • Mo (Molybdenum)
  • Ni (Nickel)
  • B (Boron)
  • Cu (Copper)


Milk (average composition)

The average composition of milk is:

  • Water --> 87.1%
  • Lactose --> 5.1%
  • Fat --> 3.9%
  • Casein --> 2.5%
  • Albumin --> 0.7%
  • Mineral matter --> 0.7%

Note: Lactose is a disaccharide comprising of two simple sugar molecules which are glucose and galactose. Please read our article on carbohydrates and sugars HERE.



These are soil worms that are not segmented and are also very small in size. Sometimes, nematodes attack the root of plants causing damage to it.



This is the oxidation (breaking down in the presence of oxygen) of ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4+) into nitrites and the the subsequent oxidation of nitrites into nitrates.


Nitrification inhibitors

These are chemical compounds added to nitrogen fertilizer in order to reduce the rate of conversion of ammonium form of fertilizer to a nitrate form.


Nitrogen Cycle

This is the cyclic movement or transformations of nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil where it is used by plants and other nitrifying organisms until it is eventually returned back to the atmosphere.

Note: Leguminous plants are very useful in fixing nitrogen back into the soils. This is why they are a great choice in the crop rotation planting system.


Nitrogen fixation

This is the process through which atmospheric nitrogen is combined with other elements to form inorganic compounds which can then be converted (by a process called nitrification) into nutrients that can easily be absorbed by plants, to be utilize for their normal functioning including photosynthesis. 

Note: Rhizobium, a bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants brings about this nitrification. 



They are small bodies or structures found on the surface of a plant's root and they usually contain Rhizobium. (Rhizobium is a bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, for example soya bean.


Non-selective herbicides

These are chemical compound that are generally used to kill plants.  Read the differences between plant and Crops HERE.

Note: Some selective herbicides may become non-selective if used at very high rates.



This is a chemical material, element or compound that is needed or essential for the normal body metabolism, growth, reproduction and other basic characteristics of life. Nitrients are present in the six classes of food which are:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water



They are the progeny of parents.

Note: Progeny is another word for offspring. You may read our article on synonyms HERE.



These are living organisms that feed on flesh, animals and plant origin feeds. Humans are examples of omnivores.


Organic Fertilizer

This is a fertilizer containing plant nutrients in combination with carbon.

Note: An organic material will always have carbon in its composition.


You may also read our article on Agricultural Terms and Definition (A - D) HERE.

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