Agricultural Science

Agriculture Terms - Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural Terms (I - O)

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 14th May, 2019 @ 03:53

Topics in Agricultural Science

Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural Machines and their Uses Soil Erosion: Causes of Soil Erosion Ways to prevent Soil Erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term Len Academy Agric Science exam questions, JSS1, First Term, part 2 Definitions and Meanings of Agricutural terms (P - Q) Agricultural Terms: Definition and Meanings of Agricultural Terms (P and Q), part 2 Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term Len Academy questions for Agric Science JSS1, 2nd Term, Part 2 Roles of Government in Agriculture

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Cordage is made from _____ crop.

  • A. Food

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Ornamental

  • D. Oil

  • E. Cash

  • F. Vegetables and Spice

_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.

  • A. Soil

  • B. Farmland

  • C. Agricultural land

  • D. Biosphere

  • E. Open land

  • F. Planting and grazing land

Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?

  • A. Cones are present

  • B. Sepals are present

  • C. Petals are absent

  • D. Only seeds are produced

  • E. Sporophyll form the cones

  • F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning seeds?

  • A. The ovary develops into the seed after fertilization

  • B. The embryo in the seed develops into a young plant

  • C. The seed's endosperm serve as a source of food reserve for the developing embryo

  • D. A seed has its own genotype

  • E. Seeds are products of sexual reproduction

  • F. Apomictic seeds aren't produced sexually and the hawkseed is an example

The _____ is the reproductive organ in plant's sexual reproduction.

  • A. Pollen grain

  • B. Ova

  • C. Sperm

  • D. Flower

  • E. Fruit

  • F. Seed

In flowering plants, fertilization occurs when the _____ comes into contact with the ova (as genetic materials are eventually exchanged).

  • A. Sperm

  • B. Endosperm

  • C. Exosperm

  • D. Stigma

  • E. Ovule

  • F. Pollen grain

The fusion of sperm and ova in animals leads to the formation of _____.

  • A. Foetus

  • B. Embryo

  • C. Ovary

  • D. Neonate

  • E. Zygote

  • F. Egg



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Agricultural Terms and Meanings:

As students and teachers, understanding the various agricultural terms and their meanings is quite important towards gaining a better knowledge on this subject.

In this article, we will look at the meanings of Agricultural Terms for Letters I through O.

  • Incubation

This is the process of keeping eggs under controlled conditions of temperature and moisture in order to make them hatch.

Note: It takes turkeys 28 days and chicks 21 days to hatch.


  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM involves the use of biological, chemical, and cultural control tactics to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly, and socially acceptable.

Please read on Pest of Agricutural Importance here.

Note: The goal is to minimize the excessive use of chemicals in controlling pest on agricultural land.

You can read on Agricultural Land here.


  • Integration

This a a process of ensuring control on all or some of the various stages of production within a specific organization.

Please read on Production here.


  • Identity Preserved (IP)

This is the identification and maintenance of seed with specific traits or characteristics because of their competitive advantage.


  • Lactation Period

This is the duration of time a female animal gives milk to its offspring.

Note: This term is usually associated to dairy cows and milk goats.


  • Layer

This is a female chicken that produces eggs regularly.

Note: A layer should produce at least 19 dozens of eggs in a year.


  • Leaching

This is a process of removal or loss of soluble soil materials or nutrients by the passage of water through soil.

Note: The dissolved soil nutrients are completely lost in leaching.

Please read on Soil Erosion here.


  • Legumes

This is a type of plant that has nodules formed by bacteria on its roots. The bacteria that produce these nodules take nitrogen from the air and pass it on into the plant for the plant to use.

Note: Leguminous plants are important in crop rotation. Examples are beans, soybeans and sweet clover.


  • Litter

The offspring born at the same time by one sow. (The offspring are more than one).

Note: A sow is an adult female pig.


  • Livestock

This is any animal domesticated for meat or money or other market purposes.

Examples of Livestock include beef and dairy cattle, sheep, goats and chickens.


  • Macronutrients

These are essential nutrients or elements needed by plants in relatively large amount. They include:

  1. N (Nitrogen)
  2. P (Phosphorus)
  3. K (Potassium)
  4. Mg (Magnesium)
  5. Ca (Calcium)
  6. S (Sulfur)

Please read on Macronutrients, their Sources, functions and defficiencies here.


  • Manure

They are generally animal excreta and straw. They also include refuse from stables.


  • Mare

This is an adult/mature female horse.


  • Marginal Land

This is a land that is unproductive for farming.


  • Mastitis

This is a disease of the cow’s udder as a result of infections from pathogens. This infection may result from improper milking procedures.

Please read on Immunization here.


  • Micronutrient

A micronutrient is considered to be an essential or important nutrient (elements) that is needed by plants in minute or small quantities.  The micronutrients are:

  1. Mn (Manganese)
  2. Zn (Zinc)
  3. Cl (Chlorine)
  4. Fe (Iron)
  5. Mo (Molybdenum)
  6. Ni (Nickel)
  7. B (Boron)Cu (Copper)

Please read on Micronutrients, their Sources, functions and defficiencies here.


  • Milk (Average Composition)

The average composition of milk is:

  1. Water --> 87.1%
  2. Lactose --> 5.1%
  3. Fat --> 3.9%
  4. Casein --> 2.5%
  5. Albumin --> 0.7%
  6. Mineral matter --> 0.7%

Note: Lactose is a disaccharide comprising of two simple sugar molecules which are glucose and galactose.

Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.


  • Nematode

These are soil worms that are not segmented and are also very small in size.

Sometimes, nematodes attack the root of plants causing damage to it.


  • Nitrification

This is the oxidation (breaking down in the presence of oxygen) of ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4+) into nitrites and the the subsequent oxidation of nitrites into nitrates.


  • Nitrification Inhibitors

These are chemical compounds added to nitrogen fertilizer in order to reduce the rate of conversion of ammonium form of fertilizer to a nitrate form.


  • Nitrogen Cycle

This is the cyclic movement or transformations of nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil where it is used by plants and other nitrifying organisms until it is eventually returned back to the atmosphere.

Note: Leguminous plants are very useful in fixing nitrogen back into the soils. This is why they are a great choice in the crop rotation planting system.


  • Nitrogen Fixation

This is the process through which atmospheric nitrogen is combined with other elements to form inorganic compounds which can then be converted (by a process called nitrification) into nutrients that can easily be absorbed by plants, to be utilize for their normal functioning including photosynthesis.

Note: Rhizobium, a bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants brings about this nitrification.


  • Nodules

They are small bodies or structures found on the surface of a plant's root and they usually contain Rhizobium.

Rhizobium is a bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, for example soya bean.


  • Non-selective Herbicides

These are chemical compound that are generally used to kill plants.

Please read on the differences between Plants and a Crops here.

Note: Some selective herbicides may become non-selective if used at very high rates.


  • Nutrient

This is a chemical material, element or compound that is needed or essential for the normal body metabolism, growth, reproduction and other basic characteristics of life.

Nitrients are present in the six classes of food. They are:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Fats and Oils
  3. Proteins
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals
  6. Water

Please read on the Basic Characteristics of Life here.


  • Offspring

They are the progeny of parents.

Note: Progeny is another word for offspring.

Please read on various examples of Symnonyms.


  • Omnivore

These are living organisms that feed on flesh, animals and plant origin feeds.

Humans are examples of omnivores.


  • Organic Fertilizer

This is a fertilizer containing plant nutrients in combination with carbon.

Note: An organic material will always have carbon in its composition.


Please read on Agricultural Terms and Meanings (Letter "A").

Please read on Agricultural Terms and Meanings (Letters "P and Q").

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science

Below are some common types of erosion:

  • Water Erosion: It is caused by rainfall and flooding on the topsoil. As a result of water erosion, some layers of the topsoil are lost.

  • Sheet Erosion: When an entire surface of land becomes eroded at a uniform (equal) level, such is referred to as sheet erosion. It is shown below:
    Sheet Erosion - Len Academy

  • Wind Erosion: It results from the actions of wind on a bare land. Wind erosion is often seen in deserts. Overgrazing and lack of vegetation cover will also enhance wind erosion on topsoil.

Please read more on types of soil erosion here.

Soil erosion is defined as a process through which the topsoil is removed or moved from one point to another by agents like wind, water, man and animals.

Soil erosion occurs naturally (wind and water) and may also be facilitated by living organisms.

Soil erosion is more likely to occur on a sloppy land and land with no vegetation cover. When this occurs, the nutrient rich layer of the topsoil is washed away; and this ultimately results in fewer plants growing on such eroded soil.

Please read more on soil erosion here

There are about 630 different kinds of carnivorous plants.

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients by consuming small animals, especially insects.

Carnivorous plants are also referred to as insectivorous plants.

Examples of carnivorous plants include sundew and Venus flytrap.

Please read more on carnivorous plants here