Bones in the Human Body:
The adult human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. At birth, a baby has 300 bones. As the baby grow and develops, some of these bones fuses or joins together, giving a total of 206 bones afterwards. Together, these 206 bones forms a framework on which the body takes its shape. This frame work is referred to as the skeleton. The human skeleton is upright, giving human an upright appearance. The skeleton also protects the delicate internal organs; for instance, the brain is protected by some bones of the skull. The skeleton also aids movement. You may wish to read some amazing facts in biology here.
Below are a list of all the bones that makes up the human skeleton
1. The bones of the head and face; also referred to as the skull. It is made up of 22 bones. These are:
a. The cranium or Brain Box; which houses the brain and has a total of 8 bones. The bones are:
- One Frontal Bone: Bone of the forehead
- Two Parietal Bones
- Two Temporal Bones
- One Occipital Bone: This bone is present at the posterior and lower part of the cranium. Think of it as the bone at the back of the head.
- One Sphenoid Bone: This bone has the shape of a butterfly.
- One Ethmoid Bone: It lies between the two orbits just at the roof of the nasal cavity. (For now, relate the orbits to the eye sockets).
b. The bones of the face; which is made up of 14 bones. These are:
- One Mandible: This is the lower jaw bone. The lower 16 teeth are attached on the mandible.
- Two Maxilla: This is the upper jaw bone. The upper 16 teeth are present on the maxilla. The maxilla contributes to the roof of the upper cavity. You can actually feel it by opening your mouth while touching its roof.
- Two Palatine Bones.
- Two Zygomatic Bones: They are the cheekbone on each side of the face. This bone can be quite prominent in some people.
- Two Nasal Bones: These bones contribute to the length and size of the nose.
- Two Lacrimal Bones: They are the smallest bones of the face.
- One Vomer
- Two Inferior Nasal Conchae Bone
2. The Ears has 6 small Bones, 3 on each ear. All of these bones are present in the middle ear. They are:
- Two Malleus or Hammer: It is shaped like a hammer and is attached to the eardrum.
- Two Incus or Anvil: It has the shape of an anvil and connects the malleus bone to the stapes.
- Two Stapes or Stirrup: It is shaped like a stirrup.
3. The Throat has one bone named the hyiod bone
4. The Shoulder has 4 Bones, 2 on each side. These bones attach the arm or upper limbs to the body. They include:
- Two Clavicle bones or collar bones: These are a pair of long bones that is attached to the scapular at the lateral side and to the sternum (manubrium) at the medial side.
- Two Scapula or shoulder blade bones: These are flat triangular bones found at the shoulder.
Note: Medial is the side closer to the body while lateral is the side away from the body. The manubrium is the upper part of the sternum. The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the ribs anteriorly. Both the clavicle and the scapular attaches the upper limbs to the body at the shoulder joint which happens to be the most flexible joint is the human body permitting movement in 360o. This joint is a ball and socket joint.
5. The Thorax or Chest has 25 Bones
The thorax extends between the neck and the abdomen. A muscular sheet called the diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen. The bones of the thorax protect the heart and the lungs. The thoracic bones are:
- 24 Rib Bones; 12 on each sides attached to the sternum anteriorly and each thoracic vertebrae posteriorly. The thoracic vertebrae are 12 in number.
- Sternum: The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the first 10 ribs anteriorly while the vertebral column attaches to the 12 ribs posteriorly. The last 2 ribs are not attached to anything anteriorly and are thus referred to as floating ribs. The sternum also holds the clavicle (collar bone) in its upper part called the manubrium. The sternum can be divided into 3 parts. These are: Manubrium, Body of the Sternum and Xiphoid process.
Note: The ribs and sternum are important for the breathing process. Some persons may have an extra rib. The term anterior means in front while posterior means behind.
6. The Vertebral bones or vertebral column or spinal column are group of small bones found posterior and in the midline region of our body (back region).
Image-Credit: Spine Universe
Each vertebrae is joined together via a fibro elastic joint to form the vertebral column or spinal column. These bones are 33 in numbers and they protect the spinal cord. The vertebral bones include:
- Seven Cervical Vertebrae, found in the neck region.
- Twelve Thoracic Vertebrae, present in the thorax posteriorly.
- Five Lumbar Vertebrae: Present in the lumbar region of the body.
- One Sacral Vertebral Bone: They are present in the hip or pelvic region. The sacral vertebral bones are actually 5 separate of bones that are fused to form the sacrum.
- One Coccygeal Vertebra: These bones are 4 in humans but are fused together as one. They are the tailbones in animals. In human and some primates, no tail is seen because of the fusion of these bones.
7. The Arm is the region extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow. It has 2 Bones. These are:
8. The Forearm is the region between the elbow and the wrist. It has 4 Bones. The bons are:
- Two Ulna bones, one for each forearm: It is present at the medial side of the arm.
- Two Radius bones; one for each forearm. It is on the lateral side of forearm bones
Note:The ulna and radius are both prismatic in shape.
9. The hand is the region between the wrist and the tip of the fingers. It is made up of 54 bones.
Image-Credit: Inner Organs
a. 16 carpal bones, also called the wrist bones; 8 for each hand. This bones are small irregularly shaped bones found in the wrist and arranged in two rows of four bones each. They are:
- 2 Scaphoid Bone
- 2 Lunate Bone
- 2 Triquetral Bone
- 2 Pisiform Bone
- 2 Trapezium Bone
- 2 Trapezoid Bone
- 2 Capitate Bone
- 2 Hamate Bone
b. 10 Metacarpal Bones, 5 on each hand. The metacarpal are the bones of the palms and they lie between the wrist and anterior end of the finger bones; (or between the tarsal bones and the phalanges)
c. 28 finger Bones or Phalanges. You can observe these bones by looking at your fingers. 3 are present in each finger except for the thumb which has only 2. Each of these bones is separated by joints. You can observe these joints by making a fist. The phalanges include:
- 10 Proximal Phalanges: The finger bones closest to the palm. They have a joint with the metacarpals.
- 8 Intermediate Phalanges: The thumb has no intermediate phalanges while other fingers have one each.
- 10 Distal Phalanges: The distal phalanges are closest to the fingers.
10. The Pelvic or Hip has 2 bones
The pelvis comprise of 2 Coxal or Innominate or Hip Bones: These bones fuse at the middle to form the pelvis or pelvic girdle. Each pelvic bone can be divided into 3 parts. These are Ilium, Ischium and Pubis
11. The Thigh is the region between the hip and the knee. It is made up of 2 bones.
Two Femur bones (one for each thigh): The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It’s also referred to as the thigh bone.
12. The Leg is the region between the knee and the ankle. It comprises of 4 bones, 2 for each leg:
- Two Tibia Bones: This is the second longest bone in the human body. Footballers wear shin guard to protect this bone. It is the bigger and longer of the leg bones.
- Two Fibula Bones: This is the thinner of the leg bones. It’s located lateral to the body and is also referred to as the calf bone.
13. Present in the knee joint are 2 patella bones.
- Two Patella bones: It is a triangular shaped bone, forming a protective cap over the knee joint. People also refer to it as the Kneecap.
14. The bone that make up the foot. They are 52 in numbers. They include:
a. The tarsal bones also called the ankle bones: Ccomprises of 14 small bones. These are:
- 2 calcaneus Bones: Bones of the heel.
- 2 Navicular Bones
- 2 Talus Bones
- 2 Medial Cunieform Bones
- 2 Intermedite Cunieform Bones
- 2 Lateral Cunieform Bones
- 2 Cuboid Bones
b. 10 Metatarsal Bones, 5 on each foot. The metatarsal bones lie between the ankle and the anterior end of the toe bones.
c. 28 Phalanges or Toe Bones. These bones are put into the followings:
- 10 Proximal Phalanges, 5 for each foot.
- 8 intermediate Phalanges: The big toe has no intermediate phalanges
- 10 Distal Phalanges, 5 for each foot.