Basic Science

Bones of the Human Skeleton

len Alfred Ajibola - Mon, 20th May, 2019 @ 09:27 AM

Topics in Basic Science

Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?

Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism

Bones of the Human skeleton:

The adult human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. At birth, a baby initially has 300 bones. As the baby grows and develops, some of these bones fuses or joins together, giving a total of 206 bones afterwards.

Together, these 206 bones form a framework on which the body take its shape. This bony bodily framework that make up the body is termed skeleton.

The human skeleton is upright, thus giving them their unique upright appearance. In humans, it performs six main functions.

Please read on the functions of the human skeleton here.


Below are all the bones that make up the human skeleton:

1. The bones of the head and face also referred to as the skull. It is made up of 22 bones. These are:

(A) The cranium or brain box which houses the brain. It is made up of 8 bones. The bones are:

Bones of the Cranium - Len Academy

  • One frontal bone: Bone of the forehead
  • Two parietal bones
  • Two temporal bones
  • One occipital bone: This bone is present at the posterior and lower part of the cranium. Think of it as the bone located at the back of the head.
  • One sphenoid bone: This bone has the shape of a butterfly.
  • One ethmoid bone: It lies between the two orbits just at the roof of the nasal cavity. For now, relate the orbits to the eye sockets.

(B) The bones of the face which is made up of 14 bones. These are:

Bones of the Face - Len Academy

  • One mandible: This is the lower jaw bone. The lower 16 teeth are attached on the mandible.
  • Two maxilla: This is the upper jaw bone. The upper 16 teeth are present on the maxilla. The maxilla contributes to the roof of the upper cavity. You can actually feel it by opening your mouth and touching its roof.
  • Two palatine bones.
  • Two zygomatic bones: They are the cheekbone on both sides of the face. This bone can be quite prominent in some people.
  • Two nasal bones: These bones contribute to the length and size of the nose.
  • Two lacrimal bones: They are the smallest bones of the face.
  • One vomer
  • Two inferior nasal conchae bones

Please read on Types of Bones here.


2. The Ears has 6 small Bones, 3 on each ear. All of these bones are present in the middle ear. They are:

Ear Bones - Len Academy

  • Two malleus or hammer: It is shaped like a hammer and is attached to the tympanic membrane or eardrum.
  • Two incus or anvil: It has the shape of an anvil and connects the malleus bone to the stapes.
  • Two stapes or stirrup: It is shaped like a stirrup.


3. The Throat has one bone named the hyiod bone

Hyiod Bone - Len Academy

  • Hyiod bone

Please read on the differences between bones and cartilages here.


4. The shoulder has 4 bones, two on each side. These bones attach the arm or upper limbs to the body. They include:

  • Two clavicle bones or collar bones: These are a pair of long bones that is attached to the scapular at the lateral side and to the sternum (manubrium) at the medial side.
  • Two scapula or shoulder blade bones: These are flat triangular bones found at the shoulder.

Bones of the Shoulder - Len Academy

Note: Medial is an anatomical term that refers to any bodily part closer to the body's midline while the term lateral refers to the bodily part located away from the body's midline. Both terms will be used throughout this article.

The manubrium is the upper part of the sternum. The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the ribs anteriorly.

The glenoid cavity of the scapular attaches to the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint; and this is the most flexible (and weakest) joint in the human body, permitting movement in 360o. This joint is a typical example of a ball and socket joint.

Together, the scapular, lateral side of the clavicle and the upper part of the humerus forms the pectoral girdle.

Please read on some Amazing Facts in Biology here.


5. The Thorax or Chest has 25 bones

The thorax extends between the neck and the abdomen. A muscular sheet called the diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen.

The bones of the thorax protect the heart and the lungs.

Ribs and Strenum - Len Academy

The thoracic bones are:

  • 24 rib bones: They include 12 on each sides attached to the sternum anteriorly and each thoracic vertebrae posteriorly. The thoracic vertebrae are 12 in number.
  • Sternum: The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the first 10 ribs anteriorly while the vertebral column attaches to the 12 ribs posteriorly. The last 2 ribs are unattached anteriorly and are thus referred to as floating ribs.

The sternum also holds the clavicle (collar bone) in its upper part called the manubrium.

The sternum can be divided into 3 parts. These are:

  1. Manubrium

  2. Body of the sternum

  3. Xiphoid process

The ribs and sternum are important in the breathing process. Meanwhile, certain people may have an extra rib (13th rib).

Please read on the Basic Characteristics of Life here.

Understand that the term anterior means 'in front' while posterior means 'behind' or 'at the back'.


6. The vertebral bones or vertebral column or spinal column are group of small bones found posteriorly and in the mid-line region of our body (back region).

Vertebral Column - Len Academy

Each vertebrae is joined together via a fibro elastic joint to form the vertebral column or spinal column.

These bones making up the vertebral column are 33 in numbers. They protect the spinal cord and serve as an attachment to the ribs posteriorly.

The vertebral bones include:

  • Seven cervical vertebrae found in the neck region.
  • Twelve thoracic vertebrae present in the thorax posteriorly.
  • Five lumbar vertebrae present in the lumbar region of the body.
  • One sacral vertebral bone present at the hip or pelvic region. The sacral vertebral bones are actually 5 separate bones that are fused to form the sacrum.
  • One coccygeal vertebra: These bones are 4 in humans but are fused together as one. They are the tailbones in animals. In human and some primates, no tail is seen due to the fusion of these bones.

You can read on the uniqueness of man here.


7. The arm is the region extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow. It has 2 bones. These are:
  • Two humerus, one for each arm: This is the single long bone of each arm. It commences from the shoulder joint and terminates at the elbow joint.

Arm Bones - Len Academy

You can read on bone and bone cells here.


8. The forearm is the region between the elbow and the wrist. It has 4 bones. The bones are:

  • Two ulna bones, one for each forearm: It is present at the medial side of the arm.
  • Two radius bones, one for each forearm. It is present on the lateral side of forearm bones.

The ulna and radius are both prismatic in shape.

Please read on the classification of bones based on shape here.


9. The hand is the region between the wrist and the tip of the fingers. It is made up of 54 bones.

Bones of the Hands - Len Academy

(A) 16 carpal bones, also called the wrist bones; 8 for each hand.

The 16 carpal bones are small irregularly shaped bones found in the wrist and arranged in two rows of four bones each. They are:

  • 2 scaphoid bones

  • 2 lunate bones

  • 2 triquetral bones

  • 2 pisiform bones

  • 2 trapezium bones

  • 2 trapezoid bones

  • 2 capitate bones

  • 2 hamate bones

(B) 10 Metacarpal Bones, 5 on each hand.

The metacarpals are the bones of the palms and they lie between the wrist and anterior end of the finger bones; (or between the tarsal bones and the phalanges)

(C) 28 finger bones or phalanges. You can observe these bones by looking at your fingers.

Understand that three phalangeal bones are present in each finger except for the thumb which has only two.

Each of these bones is separated by joints. You can observe these joints by making a fist.

The phalanges include:

  • 10 proximal phalanges: The finger bones closest to the palm. They have a joint with the metacarpals.
  • 8 intermediate phalanges: The thumb has no intermediate phalanges while other fingers have one each.
  • 10 distal phalanges: The distal phalanges are closest to the fingers.


10. The pelvic or hip has 2 bones

The pelvis comprise of 2 coxal or innominate or hip bones. Both hip bones fuse at the middle to form the pelvis or pelvic girdle.

Each pelvic bone can be divided into 3 parts. These are:

  1. Ilium

  2. Ischium

  3. Pubis

Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.


11. The thigh is the region between the hip and the knee. It is made up of 2 bones.

Two femur bones (one for each thigh). The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It’s also referred to as the thigh bone.

Thigh and Leg Bones - Len Academy


12. The leg is the region between the knee and the ankle. It comprises of 4 bones, two for each leg. These are:

  • Two tibia bones: This is the second longest bone in the human body. Footballers wear shin guard to protect this bone. It is the bigger and longer of the leg bones.
  • Two fibula bones: This is the thinner of the leg bones. It’s located lateral to the body and is also referred to as the calf bone.


13. Present in the knee joint are 2 patella bones.
  • Two patella bones: It is a triangular shaped bone, forming a protective cap over the knee joint. People also refer to both bones as the Kneecaps.


14. The bones that make up the foot. They are 52 in numbers. They include:

Foot Bones - Len Academy

(A) The tarsal bones also called the ankle bones: It comprises of 14 small bones. These are:

  • 2 calcaneus bones: Bones of the heel

  • 2 navicular bones

  • 2 talus bones

  • 2 medial cunieform bones

  • 2 intermedite cunieform bones

  • 2 lateral cunieform bones

  • 2 cuboid bones

(B) 10 metatarsal bones, 5 on each foot.

The metatarsal bones lie between the ankle and the anterior end of the toe bones.

(C) 28 Phalanges or toe bones. These bones are put into the followings:

  • 10 proximal phalanges, 5 for each foot.

  • 8 intermediate phalanges. It is noteworthy to state that the big toe has no intermediate phalanges.

  • 10 distal phalanges, 5 for each foot.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

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Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

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Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

Cats are unable to taste sweet things


Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch

  2. Glycogen

  3. Chitin

  4. Cellulose

Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here