Topics in Basic ScienceImportance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
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The adult human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. At birth, a baby initially has 300 bones. As the baby grows and develops, some of these bones fuses or joins together, giving a total of 206 bones afterwards.
Together, these 206 bones form a framework on which the body take its shape. This bony bodily framework that make up the body is termed skeleton.
The human skeleton is upright, thus giving them their unique upright appearance. In humans, it performs six main functions.
Below are all the bones that make up the human skeleton:
1. The bones of the head and face also referred to as the skull. It is made up of 22 bones. These are:
(A) The cranium or brain box which houses the brain. It is made up of 8 bones. The bones are:
(B) The bones of the face which is made up of 14 bones. These are:
2. The Ears has 6 small Bones, 3 on each ear. All of these bones are present in the middle ear. They are:
3. The Throat has one bone named the hyiod bone
4. The shoulder has 4 bones, two on each side. These bones attach the arm or upper limbs to the body. They include:
Note: Medial is an anatomical term that refers to any bodily part closer to the body's midline while the term lateral refers to the bodily part located away from the body's midline. Both terms will be used throughout this article.
The manubrium is the upper part of the sternum. The sternum is the bone at the center of your chest. The sternum holds the ribs anteriorly.
The glenoid cavity of the scapular attaches to the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint; and this is the most flexible (and weakest) joint in the human body, permitting movement in 360o. This joint is a typical example of a ball and socket joint.
Together, the scapular, lateral side of the clavicle and the upper part of the humerus forms the pectoral girdle.
5. The Thorax or Chest has 25 bones
The thorax extends between the neck and the abdomen. A muscular sheet called the diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen.
The bones of the thorax protect the heart and the lungs.
The thoracic bones are:
The sternum also holds the clavicle (collar bone) in its upper part called the manubrium.
The sternum can be divided into 3 parts. These are:
Body of the sternum
The ribs and sternum are important in the breathing process. Meanwhile, certain people may have an extra rib (13th rib).
Understand that the term anterior means 'in front' while posterior means 'behind' or 'at the back'.
6. The vertebral bones or vertebral column or spinal column are group of small bones found posteriorly and in the mid-line region of our body (back region).
Each vertebrae is joined together via a fibro elastic joint to form the vertebral column or spinal column.
These bones making up the vertebral column are 33 in numbers. They protect the spinal cord and serve as an attachment to the ribs posteriorly.
The vertebral bones include:
7. The arm is the region extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow. It has 2 bones. These are:
Two humerus, one for each arm: This is the single long bone of each arm. It commences from the shoulder joint and terminates at the elbow joint.
8. The forearm is the region between the elbow and the wrist. It has 4 bones. The bones are:
The ulna and radius are both prismatic in shape.
9. The hand is the region between the wrist and the tip of the fingers. It is made up of 54 bones.
(A) 16 carpal bones, also called the wrist bones; 8 for each hand.
The 16 carpal bones are small irregularly shaped bones found in the wrist and arranged in two rows of four bones each. They are:
2 scaphoid bones
2 lunate bones
2 triquetral bones
2 pisiform bones
2 trapezium bones
2 trapezoid bones
2 capitate bones
2 hamate bones
(B) 10 Metacarpal Bones, 5 on each hand.
The metacarpals are the bones of the palms and they lie between the wrist and anterior end of the finger bones; (or between the tarsal bones and the phalanges)
(C) 28 finger bones or phalanges. You can observe these bones by looking at your fingers.
Understand that three phalangeal bones are present in each finger except for the thumb which has only two.
Each of these bones is separated by joints. You can observe these joints by making a fist.
The phalanges include:
10. The pelvic or hip has 2 bones
The pelvis comprise of 2 coxal or innominate or hip bones. Both hip bones fuse at the middle to form the pelvis or pelvic girdle.
Each pelvic bone can be divided into 3 parts. These are:
11. The thigh is the region between the hip and the knee. It is made up of 2 bones.
Two femur bones (one for each thigh). The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It’s also referred to as the thigh bone.
12. The leg is the region between the knee and the ankle. It comprises of 4 bones, two for each leg. These are:
13. Present in the knee joint are 2 patella bones.
14. The bones that make up the foot. They are 52 in numbers. They include:
(A) The tarsal bones also called the ankle bones: It comprises of 14 small bones. These are:
2 calcaneus bones: Bones of the heel
2 navicular bones
2 talus bones
2 medial cunieform bones
2 intermedite cunieform bones
2 lateral cunieform bones
2 cuboid bones
(B) 10 metatarsal bones, 5 on each foot.
The metatarsal bones lie between the ankle and the anterior end of the toe bones.
(C) 28 Phalanges or toe bones. These bones are put into the followings:
10 proximal phalanges, 5 for each foot.
8 intermediate phalanges. It is noteworthy to state that the big toe has no intermediate phalanges.
10 distal phalanges, 5 for each foot.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
Cats are unable to taste sweet things
Apples float on water. Other fruits that float on water include lemons, bananas, pears, and oranges
Rain water is said to be pure because it's colorless, odourless and tasteless. Interestingly, it also contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your palm
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.
Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.
Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose