Topics in Agricultural ScienceTypes of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.
A. 1 – 3.5
B. 4 – 5.5
C. 6 – 7.5
D. 8 – 9.5
E. 10 – 11.5
F. 12 – 13.5
People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.
F. Anime Farming
The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.
Which of the following is not a vegetable?
All plants are crops.
In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?
A. They are non-essential nutrients
B. They are required by plants in minute quantities
C. Iron is a micronutrient
D. Chlorine is a micronutrient
E. Copper is a micronutrient
F. Boron is a micronutrient
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Government plays an important role in the development of agriculture. Every government has an annual budget and agriculture happens to be a major sector to which an annual financial allocation is given.
Using the nation Nigeria as a reference, the country once depended almost entirely on agriculture for her national revenue. During this period, the citizens of Nigeria lived like kings. Interestingly, it was reported that the Nigerian Naira (NGN) was more valuable than the American Dollar at that point in time. However, the reverse is the case (during the time of publishing this article).
It was the discovery of oil in an era called the 'oil boom' that brought about negligence of the agricultural sector by the Nigerian government; as all the focus were placed on oil.
As it stands now, the government of Nigeria must be proactive towards agriculture, education and technology because the era of oil is gradually coming to a decline with the emergence of electric and smart cars/automobiles.
Please read more on the internet of things here.
Below are the various ways through which the government can enhance agriculture within a state or country.
As we all know, knowledge is key to everything that had been successfully achieved. In this light, the more education a farmer has, the better his quality and quantity of produce.
Unfortunately, majority of the farmers in developing nations are from the rural areas, most of which have got little or no education.
Please read on the consequences and solutions to illiteracy here.
The government should set up agricultural schools and institutes in these rural communities in order to increase the quality and quantity agriculture produce.
Once again, it is noteworthy to state that education is vital towards the development of any nation.
The government should provide financial assistance in the form of subsidies, loans and grants to farmers in order to boost agriculture in each state of the country.
Please read on the methods of payment through commercial banks here.
Most of the farmers in developing countries remain poor because they are neglected by the government; and thus lack the capital to increase their agricultural output. For this reason, majority of these farmers practice subsistence farming.
Subsistence farming is a type of farming where a farmer grows crop or rear animals for themselves and their families.
Farmers do not farm for financial returns in subsistence farming.
Agro-chemicals are substances or chemicals that are used for increasing agricultural yields and produce when applied to farmland.
Agro-chemicals include fertilizers, herbicides, drugs, fungicides, insecticides, vaccines and so on.
Please read on pest of agricultural importance here.
The government should provide agro-chemicals to farmers at a subsidized rate in an attempt to improve agriculture within the nation.
Storage facilities help to prevent the wastage and spoilage of agriculture produce.
Lack of storage facilities will bring about financial loss to farmers since crops will be destroyed by insect pests.
Please read more on the agricultural pests here.
The government must therefore assist in providing storage facilities in each state of the country.
Bad roads will cause accidents which could lead to loss of lives and properties. Also, some agricultural produce may become damaged and destroyed as a result of bad roads.
Please read on land mode of transportation here.
Also, a bad road network can elongate the journey of agricultural products from the state where they are produced to another state where they will be sold. To this end, a 24 hour journey might end up becoming 96 hours, thus resulting in the spoilage and wastage of agricultural produce.
It is the government's responsible to provide agricultural machines like tractors, ploughs, harvesters and planters to the large scale farmers. These farm machines may be subsidized to farmers since they can be quite expensive to purchase.
Please read on agricultural tools and machines here.
Note: Farm machineries are very crucial for the cultivation of crops on large farmlands.
High quality seeds and animal species should be provided to farmers.
The availability of high quality seeds and animal species will bring about the following improvements in plants and animals:
Higher agricultural yield.
Resistance to pest and disease.
Resistance to drought.
Please read on the methods of plant propagation here.
Government should provide an efficient quarantine measures to check and control the inflow of agricultural materials like seeds, animals and other agricultural products.
The goal of quarantine measures is to identify and prevent infected agricultural materials from entering into a country. In this regard, an adequate quarantine measure will prevent certain disease causing organisms (pathogens) from gaining entrance into a country.
You can read on immunization here.
It is the responsibility of government to provide agricultural research institutes which will carry out studies and researches in regards to food and animal breeds. The goal is to improve the level of food and animal breeds in agriculture.
Some of the research institutes present in Nigeria include:
It is the responsibility of government to establish river basin authorities in order to make water available to farmers especially during dry seasons. This process of constantly making water available to farmers for agricultural purposes is termed irrigation farming.
Irrigation may be defined as the supply of water to agricultural land or crops through various means and channels in order to enhance plants' growth and development.
The government should set aside a reasonable percentage of the budget towards agriculture.
They should also see that the financial allocation to the agricultural ministry is judiciously utilized so that the nation, farmers and citizens benefit from the budgetary investment into the agricultural sector.
Please read on the functions of government here.
If the agencies responsible for all the aforementioned government roles in agriculture are corrupt, little or no progress will be seen in the agricultural sector.
The government should set up necessary institutions to punish corrupt officials according to the law.
You can read on the arms of government here.
Also, salaries should be paid to the various agricultural agencies when due.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
Notable points in Agricultural Science
The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.
The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:
The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:
Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.
Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.
Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.
Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.
Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:
Drug and Medicinal crops
Root and Tubers
All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:
Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.
Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.
Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).
Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.
Below are some of the problems of agriculture in Nigeria:
Lack of mechanized farming
Poor government policies
High cost of fertilizers
Lack of education
Lack of storage facilities
Bad road network
Poor research facilities
Please read a detailed explanation on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.