Basic Science

Vectors of diseases

Olawunmi Omosanya - Wed, 05th June, 2019 @ 12:16: PM



What are Vectors?

A vector is any animal that transmits disease causing organisms (pathogens or germs) into a host.

A disease is a deviation from the normal physiological and anatomical state of an organism which is usually associated with some specific signs and symptoms.

A host is an organism on which another organism (called a parasite) lives and feed on. They usually suffer in a parasitic relationship.

The disease causing organism (pathogen or germs) when inside the vector causes no disease on it; but as soon as the vector introduces the pathogen into the host, it affects the physiological system of the host and as a result brings about diseases in the infected host. For example, the pathogen for river blindness in humans is Onchocerca volvolus.  This pathogen initially lived inside the blackfly which happens to be its vector. The Onchocerca volvolus (within the blackfly) causes no harm to it but as soon as the blackfly introduces it into its host (humans), it may then bring about river blindness to its host.

 

The table below shows some vectors, the micro organism they carry and the disease they transmit to humans

Disease

Vector

Disease causing organism (carried by vector)

Symptoms

Malaria

Female anopheles mosquito

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (protozoan)

High fever, shivering and sweating

Yellow Fever

Aedes mosquito

Flavivirus fibricus

High fever, decreased temperature, backache, headache and jaundice

Sleeping sickness (Trypanasomisis)

Tse-tse fly

Trypanosoma brucei (protozoan)

Regular sleepiness, sluggishness, drowsiness and fever

Typhus fever

Body louse

Rickettsia prowazekii (bacterium)

Muscle pains and fever

Dengue fever or Devil’s crunch or Breakbone fever

Female aedes mosquito

Dengue fever virus (DENV)

Severe joint, back and head pains, Fever, nausea and vomitting

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

Blackfly

Onchocerca volvolus (nematode >> filarial worm)

 

Blindness, hedache and fever

Lassa hemorrhagic fever (Lassa fever)

Rodents

Lassa virus

Bleeding, fever and headaches

Anthrax

Housefly

Bacillus anthracis (Bacterium)

Difficulty in breathing, chest pain and fever

Plague (systemic invasive infectious disease)

Rat flea

Yersinia pestis

(bacterium)

Breathing difficulty, shivering, cough and fever

Tularemia or Rabbit fever or Lawnmower Disease

Mosquitoes and Tick

Francisella tularensis (bacterium)

Joint pains, Headaches and Dry cough

 

You may read on Micro organism that causes food, water and air borne diseases here

Topics in Basic Science

Benefits of the African Star Apple, Agbalumo or Udara Causes and Effects of improper Waste Management Uniqueness of Man Carbohydrates and Sugars Immunization explained Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and their side effects Bones of the Human Body Vectors of diseases Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Basic Science Mid Term Test questions, JSS1, 2nd Term




Topics in Basic Science

Benefits of the African Star Apple, Agbalumo or Udara Causes and Effects of improper Waste Management Uniqueness of Man Carbohydrates and Sugars Immunization explained Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and their side effects Bones of the Human Body Vectors of diseases Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Basic Science Mid Term Test questions, JSS1, 2nd Term



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