Biology

Bone and Bone Cells

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 02nd July, 2019 @ 17:31: PM

Topics in Biology

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Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.

  • A. saprophytes

  • B. parasites

  • C. commensals

  • D. decomposers

  • E. tertiary consumers

  • F. quatenary consumers

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C​​​​​​2​​​​C5OH
  • C. H2​​​​​O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

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Bone:

The bone is the major skeletal material present in the skeleton of vertebrates.

A fully formed bone is composed of living cells called osteocytes

The osteocytes are organic in nature.

The bone cells (osteocytes) are fortified or made strong by minerals (which are inorganic), especially hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate.

Please read on the Functions and Deficiencies of Minerals in Humans here.

Note: Hydroxyapatite is formed from calcium phosphate.

It is important to state that collagen fibres are also present as a component of bone.

The mineral component of the bone cells are non-living and they account for about two third (2/3) of the mass of the bone. For this reason, a bone is much stronger and rigid than a cartilage (as a result of their high mineral content).

Please read more on Cartilage and their Functions here.

You can read on the Differences between Bones and Cartilages here.

Note: Calcification of bones will only occur when collagen fibres are present.

Calcification is the process whereby mineral salts (hydroxyapatite) are deposited on the collagen fiber. This process crystallizes and hardens the bone tissue.

Please read on the Types and Classification of Bones here.


Bone Cells

In general, we have 4 types of the cells that make up bones. These are:

1. Osteoblasts: These bone cells are responsible for bone formation. They secrete both the organic and inorganic components of the bone.


2. Osteocytes: These are matured bone cells and do not undergo division. They maintain the bone’s structure by recycling the mineral component of bone matrix.

The osteocytes are the living tissues in bone and they make up about one third (1/3) of the mass of a matured bone.


3. Osteoclasts: They are large bone cells that function to dissolve (remove) the bone structure.

Osteoclasts release lysosomal enzymes and acids on the bone matrix in order to bring about their dissolution effect.

Please read on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.

Through the above process, calcium and phosphate minerals are released into the blood and body fluids so as to increase their concentrations.

This aformentioned process is important in certain physiological conditions.

Please read more on Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism here.


4. Osteoprogenitor cells: They are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts which makes them important for the repair of broken bones or fractures. (Please see Osteoblasts as explained above).

Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone by osteoblasts.

Another term for ossification is osteogenesis.

Please read on All Bones that make up the Human Skeleton here.

Note: Osteoporosis is a medical condition whereby bones become fragile, soft and brittle as a result from the loss of bone cells (osteocytes). The loss of bone cells in osteoporosis typically results from hormonal inbalance, deficiency of calcium in diet or a lack of vitamin D.

Similarly, osteomalacia is simply the softening of bones resulting from a lack of calcium or vitamin D in diet.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female

All babies are born with blue eyes

Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains

All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain

A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the Basic Characteristics of Life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere