Topics in BiologyMale Reproductive System: External and Internal Male Genitals Male accessory sex organs Food Chain, Food Web and Food Pyramid Skeleton and Type of Skeletal Materials Bones - Types of Bone Bones and Type of Bone part 2 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin Tropical Rainforest and Savanna with their characteristics Desert and Swamp Forest - Types of Desert, Characteristics of Deserts and Swamps Plant Nutrition and Photosynthesis - Autotrophic mode of Nutrition Amazing facts in Biology Protists - Examples and Characteristics of Protists Reptiles - Characteristics of Reptiles Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanism Arteries, Layers of an Artery and Characteristics of Arterial Disorders Introduction to Biology - Basic Characteristics of Life
Academic Questions in Biology
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
_____ bones make up the skull.
Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.
The bone is the major skeletal material present in the skeleton of vertebrates. A fully formed bone is composed of living cells called osteocytes (The osteocytes are arganic in nature).
The bone cells (osteocytes) are fortified or made strong by minerals (which are inorganic), especially hydroxyapatite (formed from calcium phosphate) and calcium carbonate. Collagen fibres are also present as a component of bones.
The mineral component of the bone cells are non-living and they account for about two third (2/3) of the mass of the bone.
A bone is much stronger and rigid than a cartilage (as a result of their high mineral content).
Note: Calcification of bones will only occur when collagen fibres are present.
Calcification is the process whereby mineral salts (hydroxyapatite) are deposited on the collagen fiber. This process crystallizes and hardens the bone tissue.
1. Osteoblasts: These bone cells are responsible for bone formation. They secrete both the organic and inorganic components of the bone.
2. Osteocytes: These are matured bone cells and do not undergo division. They maintain the bone’s structure by recycling the mineral component of bone matrix. They are the living tissues in bone and make up about one third (1/3) of the mass of a matured bone.
3. Osteoclasts: They are large bone cells that function to dissolve (remove) the bone structure. They release lysosomal enzymes and acids on the bone matrix to bring about their dissolution effect. Through this process, calcium and phosphate minerals are released into the blood and body fluids in order to increase their concentrations. This process is important in certain physiological conditions.
4. Osteoprogenitor cells: They are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts which makes them important for the repair of broken bones (fracture).
Ossification is the natural process that leads to the formation of bone by osteoblasts. Another term for ossification is osteogenesis.
Adult human beings have a total of 206 bones while a newly born child has even more. Knowledge of all the bones in the human body will help you better understand the human skeleton.
Bones can be classified based on a number of criteria. We will consider 4 of these:
We have 7 types of bones with regards to their shape. These are:
Image Credit: Owlcation
These bones appear long in appearance because they typically have an elongated shaft called diaphysis and two expanded ends on either side of the diaphysis. The expanded ends are referred to as the epiphysis. The epiphysis is covered with an articular cartilage because joints are formed around them. Within the shaft of long bones is a space or cavity called the medullary cavity.
The medullary cavity contains the bone marrow
Note: All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Blood cells include:
We have three categories of long bones. These are:
They are short is appearance and are often named according to their respective shapes. The bones comprising the wrist and ankle (carpal and tarsal bones) are short bones.
Wrist bones (also known as the carpal bone) includes:
The ankle bones (also known as tarsal bone) are:
These bones look like the sesame seed and are embedded inside of joint capsules. They will usually develop inside a tendon, thus are usually present within joints. They will ossify only after birth. A typical example of a sesamoid bone is the patella found in the kneecap/knee joint.
They are thin and broad in appearance with two main surfaces. Their surfaces aid in the attachment of various muscles. The scapula, the bone that make up the roof of the skull, sternum (breast bone) and ribs are flat bones.
These bones have a variety of shape, hence the name “irregular bone”. They could be flat, short or notched in shape depending on their location. They are found in the pelvis, vertebrae and the base of the skull.
Although these bones are irregular in shape, they are also very light because of the presence of large air cavities or spaces within them. Examples are the maxilla, sphenoid and ethmoid bones which contribute to the lightness of the skull.
These bones are small and flat with irregular shapes. They are present as part of the skull bone.
The sutural bones are also referred to as wormian bones or intrasutural bones
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere
In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are: