Topics in BiologyHindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
The statements below are true concerning arteries except _____.
A. The arterial wall has 4 layers
B. Tunica Adventitia is the outermost layer of an artery
C. Aorta is the largest artery in the human body
D. Pulmunary artery conveys deoxygenated blood
E. Internal bleeding will occur when a deeply located artery is broken
F. Arterial vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes and renal failure
The following statements are true concerning blood vessels except _____.
A. They are comprised of arteries, veins and capillaries
B. Problems associated with blood vessels are called vascular disorders
C. All veins carry blood towards the heart
D. Capillaries are found at cellular level
E. Arteries usually divide to form arterioles
F. Arterioles give rise to capillaries
The above diagram shows a _____.
A. Food Chain
B. Food Web
C. Food Flow
D. Food Energy
E. Food Pyramid
F. Food Hierarchy
Anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism is termed _____.
F. Action potential
Which of the following molecule is utilized directly as energy in the human body?
D. Adenosine Mono Phosphate
E. Adenosine Di Phosphate
F. Adenosine Tri Phosphate
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Nutrition is one of the basic characteristics of living organisms. This is true because all living organism must feed on 'something' (called food) in order to stay alive.
The process of nutrition may be considered as a form of chain that brings different species of organisms into interaction. For instance, a zebra will interact with different plants in the savanna biome for the purpose of food. Similarly, a lion interacts with a zebra for the same purpose (food).
Note: The interaction of organisms for food will always commence with producers.
Producers in food chain refers to organisms that manufacture or produce their own food.
Producers also feed from the food they manufacture while other organisms will depend on them for ready made food, either directly or indirectly.
Organisms that manufacture their own food are referred to as autotrophic organisms or autotrophs. In food chain, we often refer to them as producers.
Examples of autotrophs or producers are the green plants, blue-green algae and chemosynthetic bacteria.
Note: When autotrophs require sunlight to make their food, they are referred to as photoautotrophs and the process involved is termed photosynthesis. Examples of photoautotrophs are all green plants and the blue-green algae.
Conversely, when autotrophs utilizes chemicals to manufacture their food, they are referred to as chemoautotrophs and the process involved is termed chemosynthesis.
Chemoautotrophs includes methanogenic archaea, aquificae and sulfur-oxidizing epsilon proteobacteria.
A Food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Think of habitat as a place where organisms live. They are put into 3:
The diagram below shows a Food Chain:
A food chain begins with the producers. These producers are usually consumed by other organisms (usually herbivores and insects); and are referred to as consumers.
Note: Organisms that directly feed on producers in a food chain are preferably called primary consumers.
Examples of primary consumers are zebra, grasshopper, antelope, rabbit, caterpillar, aphids, cotton strainer and other plant feeding organisms.
Next, the primary consumers are consumed or eaten by another sets of consumers called secondary consumers.
Secondary consumers include animals like rats, lion, cats and snakes. (They can be carnivorous or ominvorous organisms).
Secondary consumers may be consumed by a third set of consumers called tertiary consumers. Vultures and eagles are examples of tertiary consumers.
Finally, the tertiary consumers are consumed by the last group of organisms called decomposers.
Decomposers in food chain are organisms that feed on dead organisms, bringing about their decomposition in the process. They may also be regarded as saprophytes.
Note Fungi and most acteria are typical examples of decomposers.
In summary, producers will always begin the food chain while decomposers signifies the end of a food chain.
It is important to state that two or more food chains are usually present in a habitat. These food chains are usually interlinked, giving rise to a food web.
All organism get their energy from the food they eat.
A food chain that shows the movement of energy through it is termed a food pyramid.
Note: The food pyramid is always drawn in a triangular form with the narrow edge at the top. This narrowing at the top signifies the loss of energy as we go top of the food pyramid.
The image below shows a Food Pyramid:
From the above diagram, the primary consumers (grasshoppers) fed on the grasses and gained 1,000kcal of energy. Most of this energy would probably be used for their metabolic activities like hopping, respiration, movement, reproduction and so on.
All living organism must lose energy in the form of heat to their surroundings. This is as a result of their metabolic activities.
By the time the secondary consumers consumed the grasshoppers, it was only able to get 10kcal of energy simply because the grasshoppers had already lost some energy in the form of heat to it's surroundings.
Similarly, the secondary consumers will also use some of this energy (10kcal) for it’s metabolic activities; thus losing some energy in the form of heat to the surroundings.
Finally, the tertiary consumer consumed the secondary consumers and was able to get 1kcal of energy. This is because the secondary consumers had lost 9kcal of energy in the form of heat to its surroundings.
Note: As a student, you should be able to state the 2nd law of thermodynamics because it has everything to do with the “loss of heat to the surroundings”.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, with regards to food chain states that:
In the course of energy transformation or transfer, some energy is lost in the form of heat to the surroundings.
Note: Energy is always lost as heat during metabolism.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Women have more pain receptors than men
It's crucial you finish your antibiotics.
If you stop taking your antibiotics before you're supposed to, any bacteria that didn't get killed can develop an immunity to that antibiotic and become a super-strain, making it much difficult to kill in the future. So keep taking your antibiotics pill, even if you feel better.
Although rare, women can still give birth when they die. This is known as coffin birth
Men can actually get aroused post moterm. This is called priapism
There are more bacteria on your body that the entire human beings on earth
🦟 Mosquitoes 🦟 have killed more people than all the wars in history put together
The human 🧠 brain 🧠 does not feel pain. For this reason, neurosurgeons can perform brain surgery while the patient is awake
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
There is an unusual plant found only in Australia's Daintree Rainforest. It's called the idiot fruit
Although the hippopotamus has a large head with a bulky body on stumpy legs, it still runs faster than a man
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere