Topics in BiologyContents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests
Academic Questions in Biology
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?
Nutrition is one of the basic characteristics of living organisms. This is true because all living organism must feed on 'something' (called food) in order to stay alive.
The process of nutrition may be considered as a form of chain that brings different species of organisms into interaction. For instance, a zebra will interact with different plants in the savanna biome for the purpose of food. Similarly, a lion interacts with a zebra for the same purpose (food).
The interaction among organisms for food will always commence with producers. Producers in food chain refers to organisms that manufacture or produce their own food.
Producers also feed from the food they manufacture while other organisms will depend on them for ready made food, either directly or indirectly.
Recall that organisms that manufacture their own food are referred to as autotrophic organisms or autotrophs. In food chain, we often refer to them as producers. Examples of autotrophs or producers are the green plants, blue-green algae and chemosynthetic bacteria.
Note: When autotrophs require sunlight to make their food, they are referred to as photoautotrophs and the process involved is termed photosynthesis. Examples of photoautotrophs are all green plants and the blue-green algae.
Conversely, when autotrophs utilizes chemicals to manufacture their food, they are referred to as chemoautotrophs and the process involved is termed chemosynthesis. Chemoautotrophs includes methanogenic archaea, aquificae and sulfur-oxidizing epsilon proteobacteria.
The producers will always commence a food chain. In this regard, they are the plants and will always occupy the trophic level 1.
By definition, the trophic level of an organism is that position which the organism occupies in a food chain or food web. These positions (trophic levels) include:
Trophic level 1 (producers)
A food chain is defined as a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Think of habitat as a place where organisms live. They can be classified into 3. These are:
The diagram below shows a food chain:
A food chain begins with the producers. These producers are usually consumed by other organisms, especially herbivores and insects. These are referred to as consumers. Meanwhile, understand that organisms that directly feed on producers in a food chain are preferably called primary consumers.
Examples of primary consumers are zebra, grasshopper, antelope, rabbit, caterpillar, aphids, cotton strainer and other plant feeding organisms.
Next, the primary consumers are consumed or eaten by another sets of consumers called secondary consumers.
Secondary consumers include animals like rats, lion, cats and snakes. They can be carnivorous or ominvorous organisms.
Secondary consumers may be consumed by a third set of consumers called tertiary consumers. Vultures and eagles are examples of tertiary consumers.
Finally, the tertiary consumers are consumed by the last group of organisms called decomposers.
Decomposers in food chain are organisms that feed on dead organisms, bringing about their decomposition or decay in the process. They may also be regarded to as saprophytes. Fungi and most bacteria are typical examples of decomposers.
In summary, producers will always begin the food chain while decomposers signifies the end of a food chain.
It is important to state that two or more food chains are often present in a habitat. These food chains are usually interlinked, giving rise to a food web.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Bios: means life.
Logos: means knowledge or to study.
Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
Irritability or Sensitivity
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere