Topics in BiologyImportance and limitations of ecological pyramid Protists explained with their characteristics Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, vas deferens, spermatic cord and cremaster muscle Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Concept of ecological pyramid Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest
Academic Questions in Biology
From the above diagram, which of the organ below isn't a requirement for the male reproductive system?
C. Glans Penis
E. Bulbourethral Gland
A walnut shaped male accessory sex organ located between the bladder and penis is the _____.
A. Ductus Ejaculatorii
B. Bulbourethral Gland
C. Prostate Gland
D. Ductus Deferens
E. Seminal Vesicles
In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level _____.
Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.
F. None of the above
All reptiles are vertebrates.
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?
Nutrition is one of the basic characteristics of living organisms. This is true because all living organism must feed on 'something' (called food) in order to stay alive.
Please read on the basic characteristics of living organisms here.
The process of nutrition may be considered as a form of chain that brings different species of organisms into interaction. For instance, a zebra will interact with different plants in the savanna biome for the purpose of food. Similarly, a lion interacts with a zebra for the same purpose (food).
You can read on the savanna biome here.
The interaction among organisms for food will always commence with producers. Producers in food chain refers to organisms that manufacture or produce their own food.
Producers also feed from the food they manufacture while other organisms will depend on them for ready made food, either directly or indirectly.
Recall that organisms that manufacture their own food are referred to as autotrophic organisms or autotrophs. In food chain, we often refer to them as producers. Examples of autotrophs or producers are the green plants, blue-green algae and chemosynthetic bacteria.
You can read on tropical rainforest explained with its importance here.
Note: When autotrophs require sunlight to make their food, they are referred to as photoautotrophs and the process involved is termed photosynthesis. Examples of photoautotrophs are all green plants and the blue-green algae.
Conversely, when autotrophs utilizes chemicals to manufacture their food, they are referred to as chemoautotrophs and the process involved is termed chemosynthesis. Chemoautotrophs includes methanogenic archaea, aquificae and sulfur-oxidizing epsilon proteobacteria.
Please read more on autotrophic mode of nutrition here.
The producers will always commence a food chain. In this regard, they are the plants, and will always occupy the trophic level 1.
By definition, the trophic level of an organism is that position which the organism occupies in a food chain or food web. These positions (trophic levels) include:
Trophic level 1 (producers)
Please read on ecological pyramid (food pyramid) here.
A food chain is defined as a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Think of habitat as a place where organisms live. They can be classified into 3. These are:
The diagram below shows a food chain:
As stated earlier, a food chain begins with the producers. These producers are consumed by other organisms, especially herbivores and insects. These are referred to as consumers. Meanwhile, understand that organisms that directly feed on producers in a food chain are preferably called primary consumers.
Examples of primary consumers are zebra, grasshopper, antelope, rabbit, caterpillar, aphids, cotton strainer and other plant feeding organisms.
You can read on differences between plants and crops here.
Next, the primary consumers are consumed or eaten by another sets of consumers called secondary consumers.
Secondary consumers include animals like rats, lion, cats and snakes. They can be carnivorous or ominvorous organisms.
You can read on reptiles and their characteristics here.
Secondary consumers may be consumed by a third set of consumers called tertiary consumers. Vultures and eagles are examples of tertiary consumers.
You can read on the unique characteristics of man here.
Finally, the tertiary consumers are consumed by the last group of organisms called decomposers.
Decomposers in food chain are organisms that feed on dead organisms, bringing about their decomposition or decay in the process. They may also be regarded to as saprophytes. Fungi and most bacteria are typical examples of decomposers.
In summary, producers will always begin the food chain while decomposers signifies the end of a food chain.
It is important to state that two or more food chains are often present in a habitat. These food chains are usually interlinked, giving rise to a food web.
Please read more on food web here.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Platypus (sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus) is an egg-laying, semiaquatic mammal found in eastern Australia. It has no stomach and as such, its food goes from the mouth through the esophagus and directly to their intestines.
Pufferfish contain a toxin called tetrodotoxin. This makes them foul tasting and poisonous to predators. Tetrodotoxin is about 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide, and there is enough toxin in one pufferfish to kill 30 adult humans. Unfortunately, there isn't any known antidote to this poison.
Interestingly, a delicacy in Japan (called fugu) is made from pufferfish. This meal is very expensive, and must be prepared by trained and licensed chefs. An improper preparation of fugu may lead to the customer's death. Sadly, such deaths are recorded annually
Wombats are the only animal with a cube-shaped poo. They can stack up these cube-shaped poo, marking their territory with it
Robert Wadlow (1918–1940) remains the tallest man ever recorded in the Guinness World Records. He was an American who stood at 8 feet, 11 inches.
An abnormally enlarged pituitary gland had resulted into Robert Wadlow's giant size.
Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs
Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled
An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain
The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth
Slugs have four noses
Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive
Notable points in Biology
An artery is composed of three layers:
The outermost layer is termed tunica adventitia (or tunica external). It consist mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues that anchors the arteries to other nearby tissues.
The middle layer is named tunica media. It is made up of smooth muscles and elastic fibres that supports the artery in conveying blood at high pressures.
The inner layer is called tunica intima (or tunica internal). It is lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium, and is made up of a fine network of connective tissues.
All living organisms possess various features in order to survive in their environment. This is the concept of adaptation. As an instance, a fish is able to live in water because it has gills and fins.
Also, a camel is able to survive in the desert because it has large feet to aid walking on sand without sinking. It also has long eyelashes to help protect it from the blowing sand and wind.
Plants are also able to live in different habitats because they have the required adaptive features towards that habitat. For instance:
Plants that live in/on water are termed hydrophytes.
Plants that live on land with moderate amount of water are termed mesophytes.
Plants that live on deserts or arid lands are termed xerophytes.
The point is:
All organisms have various features on them that enables them adapt in their habitat
For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types: