Biology

Food Chain in Ecosystem

len Alfred Ajibola - Wed, 24th July, 2019 @ 3:21 PM

Topics in Biology

Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium

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Food Chain:

Nutrition is one of the basic characteristics of living organisms. This is true because all living organism must feed on 'something' (called food) in order to stay alive.

Please read on the basic characteristics of living organisms here.

The process of nutrition may be considered as a form of chain that brings different species of organisms into interaction. For instance, a zebra will interact with different plants in the savanna biome for the purpose of food. Similarly, a lion interacts with a zebra for the same purpose (food).

You can read on the savanna biome here.


The interaction among organisms for food will always commence with producers. Producers in food chain refers to organisms that manufacture or produce their own food.

Producers also feed from the food they manufacture while other organisms will depend on them for ready made food, either directly or indirectly.

Recall that organisms that manufacture their own food are referred to as autotrophic organisms or autotrophs. In food chain, we often refer to them as producers. Examples of autotrophs or producers are the green plants, blue-green algae and chemosynthetic bacteria.

You can read on tropical rainforest explained with its importance here.

Note: When autotrophs require sunlight to make their food, they are referred to as photoautotrophs and the process involved is termed photosynthesis. Examples of photoautotrophs are all green plants and the blue-green algae.

Conversely, when autotrophs utilizes chemicals to manufacture their food, they are referred to as chemoautotrophs and the process involved is termed chemosynthesis. Chemoautotrophs includes methanogenic archaea, aquificae and sulfur-oxidizing epsilon proteobacteria.

Please read more on autotrophic mode of nutrition here.


The producers will always commence a food chain. In this regard, they are the plants and will always occupy the trophic level 1.

By definition, the trophic level of an organism is that position which the organism occupies in a food chain or food web. These positions (trophic levels) include:

  • Trophic level 1 (producers)

  • Trophic level 2 (primary consumer)
  • Trophic level 3 (secondary consumer)
  • Trophic level 4 (tertiary consumers)
  • Trophic level 5 (decomposers)

Please read on ecological pyramid (food pyramid) here.


A food chain is defined as a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Think of habitat as a place where organisms live. They can be classified into 3. These are:

  1. Terrestrial habitat (land)
  2. Aquatic habitat (water)
  3. Arboreal habitat (treetops)
  4. Please read more on various ecological concepts here.


The diagram below shows a food chain:

Food Chain - Len Academy


A food chain begins with the producers. These producers are usually consumed by other organisms, especially herbivores and insects. These are referred to as consumers. Meanwhile, understand that organisms that directly feed on producers in a food chain are preferably called primary consumers.

Examples of primary consumers are zebra, grasshopper, antelope, rabbit, caterpillar, aphids, cotton strainer and other plant feeding organisms.

You can read on differences between plants and crops here.


Next, the primary consumers are consumed or eaten by another sets of consumers called secondary consumers.

Secondary consumers include animals like rats, lion, cats and snakes. They can be carnivorous or ominvorous organisms.

You can read on reptiles and their characteristics here.

Secondary consumers may be consumed by a third set of consumers called tertiary consumers. Vultures and eagles are examples of tertiary consumers.

You can read on the unique characteristics of man here.

Finally, the tertiary consumers are consumed by the last group of organisms called decomposers.

Decomposers in food chain are organisms that feed on dead organisms, bringing about their decomposition or decay in the process. They may also be regarded to as saprophytes. Fungi and most bacteria are typical examples of decomposers.

In summary, producers will always begin the food chain while decomposers signifies the end of a food chain.


It is important to state that two or more food chains are often present in a habitat. These food chains are usually interlinked, giving rise to a food web.

Please read more on food web here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process

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NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere