ICT

Computer Hardware, Parts and Functions of Computer Hardware

len Alfred Ajibola - 07th February, 2019 @ 10:39 AM

Topics in ICT

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Academic Questions in ICT

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

The term _____ describes the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet.

  • A. Internet of Everything

  • B. Internet of Physical Devices

  • C. Internet of Things

  • D. Internet of Objects

  • E. Internetworking

  • F. Internetworking of Objects

A globally interconnected network system that utilizes TCP and IP to transmit data via various media is the _____.

  • A. World Wide Web (www)

  • B. Http

  • C. Https

  • D. Https://www

  • E. LAN

  • F. Internet

Power Supply Unit - Len Academy

The above image shows the _____ in a computer.

  • A. Expansion slot

  • B. Hard Disc Drive

  • C. Optical Drive

  • D. Power Supply Unit

  • E. Motherboard

  • F. Synchronous Dynamic Ram

The clock speed of a computer is the speed at which the _____.

  • A. HDD saves data

  • B. FDS saves data

  • C. SSD saves data

  • D. GPU receives and sends data

  • E. CPU processes data

  • F. RAM transfers data


What is Computer Hardware?

Have you seen a keyboard before? What about a monitor? If yes, then you already know something about computer hardware.

Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.

Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the equipment of the computer.

When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case.

Note: Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:

  1. Input devices: They provide information to the computer.

  2. Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.

  3. Storage devices: They store information or data.

 

Below are examples of some peripherals:

  • Keyboard (input)

  • Monitor (output)

  • Mouse (input)

  • Webcam (input)

  • Touch Pad (input)

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)

  • Hard disc drive (storage)

  • Stylus (input)

  • Joystick(input)

  • Printer (output)

  • Speaker (output)

  • Headphones (output)

 

Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:

  • Motherboard

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

  • Power supply Unit (PSU)

  • Northbridge

  • Southbridge

  • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots

  • Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Ventilation fans

  • Heat sink

  • Hard Disc Drive (external present)
  • Solid State Drive (SSD)

  • CMOS battery

  • Optical Disc Drives (external present)

  • USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports

  • Expansion Ports / Slots

Please read on the router (a networking device) here.

 

The motherboard houses the different hardware component inside the computer. Some of these includes the CPU, GPU, RAM, heat sink, fan, CMOS battery, and expansion slots and ports.

The motherboard also provides the electrical connections through which other components of the computer system communicate.

Below is a labeled diagram of a the computer motherboard with it's hardware components.

The Computer Motherboard - Len Academy
The Computer Motherboard

 

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or simply processor is considered to be the brain of the computer. It processes all information and execute computer programs. It's clock speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz).

  • Computer programs include the various applications installed on your computer system; for instance, Microsoft Office, Google chrome web browser and so on.
  • Think of clock speed as the speed at which the CPU processes information. You may wish to check out the clock speed of a computer before purchasing it.

You can read on the internet of things (IoT) here.

 

The Random Access Memory (RAM) is always located in the memory slots of the motherboard.

Functionally, the RAM temporarily store programs that are currently running on the computer and it makes that data immediately accessible. For instance; when you multi-task with two or more applications (apps), the RAM will temporarily and simultaneously store both data which can be accessed in a random order.

The size of RAM is measured mainly in gigabytes (GB) or megabytes (MB). The larger its size, the more applications or programs you can run simultaneously (multi-task).

The RAM is a volatile memory. This means that it will lose all it's information as soon as the computer system is powered off.

We have different types of RAM. They include:

  1. Static RAM (SRAM)
  2. Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
  3. Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)
  4. Single Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDR SDRAM)
  5. Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM (DDR SDRAM, DDR2, DDR3, DDR4)

 

The optical drive presents the interface for the optical disc. Optical disc include CD, DVD, and Blue-Ray Disc.

The IDE or SATA cable connects the optical drive to the motherboard while the MOLEX cable connects it to the Power Supply Unit (PSU).

Optical Drive - Len Academy
Optical Drive

 

The Hard Disc Drive (HDD) can permanently or temporarily store data. This data could be anything; from text documents, images, applications, games, movies and so on.

HDD can be internal or external and their sizes are measured typically in gigabytes (GB) and terabytes (TB).

The Hard Disc Drive is connected to the motherboard through either of the IDE/PATA, SATA or SCSI cable.

Hard Disc Drive - Len Academy
Hard Disc Drive

A modern type of storage is the Solid State Drive (SSD).

 

The Power Supply Unit (PSU) receives power (point of power entry) from an external power source like the home socket. It connects to the motherboard through the power cable. (The power cable can come in different categories). This power is allocated by the motherboard to the individual hardware component on it.

Power Supply Unit - Len Academy
Power Supply Unit

The unit of power is in watt (W).

 

The Expansion Slot adds additional functionality to the computer by holding different type expansion cards.

Examples of expansion cards include video card, wireless card, sound card and network card. They are inserted on the expansion slots to improve a computer's functionality.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 10 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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Amazing facts in ICT

YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion

Smoking near a Mac device - Len Academy

Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.

When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.

You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:

facebook.com/4

Apple iPad retina - Len Academy

Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung

The big five tech companies of the world as at 2018 are :

Google

Apple

Facebook

Amazon

Microsoft


NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT

Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on computer networks here

The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here