Topics in BiologyFood web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome?
Academic Questions in Biology
The above diagram shows a _____.
A. Food Chain
B. Food Web
C. Food Flow
D. Food Energy
E. Food Pyramid
F. Food Hierarchy
Anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism is termed _____.
F. Action potential
Which of the following molecule is utilized directly as energy in the human body?
D. Adenosine Mono Phosphate
E. Adenosine Di Phosphate
F. Adenosine Tri Phosphate
Which of the following is not a basic characteristics of life?
The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.
E. Tertiary consumers
F. Quatenary consumers
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
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The male accessory sex glands are very important in the formation of semen. Without their secretions, the released sperm (via ejaculation) may not be able to fertilize the female's ova (egg).
In a previous article, we looked at the penis, scrotum, testes, epididymis, spermatic cord, cremaster muscles and vas deferens (as structures of the male reproductive system).
The male accessory sex glands include:
The glands (listed above) are called accessory because they interact with the male sex cells (sperm) just before they are released from the external urethral orifice in the penis. (Think of the external urethral orifice as the opening on the tip of the penis).
Note: The accessory glands are also vital in the normal functioning of sperm cells. Their secretions together with the sperm give rise to semen.
In order to better comprehend the male accessory glands, let's make some quick points on the ejaculatory ducts.
Also called the ductus ejaculatorii, they are paired structures formed by the union of the vas deferens or ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle.
The ejaculatory ducts, which are about 2cm in length functions to convey semen as it travels into the prostate gland; and eventually drains into the urethra.
Notice the ejaculatory ducts in the diagram; (as explained in the above paragraph):
Blockage of the ejaculatory ducts will result in a clinical condition called Ejaculatory Duct Obstruction.
Note: If both ducts are obstructed, the patient will suffer from either aspermia (an absence of sperm) or azoospermia (low sperm count). The operation carried out to remove the obstructed or blocked ejaculatory ducts is termed transurethral resection.
Now, let's look into the male accessory glands of reproduction.
Located between the bladder and the penis (and just in front of the rectum) is the prostate gland which is a muscular structure that looks like the size of a walnut. (Please see the diagram below:)
Note: The above diagram will be referenced in the explanations on seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands; which are the other accessory male organs of reproduction.
It is the function of the prostate gland to secrete a fluid (called prostatic fluid) into the contents of the ejaculatory duct (that is; sperm).
The prostatic fluid (somewhat milky in appearance) is vital for the normal functioning of sperm; in addition to protecting it.
Also attached to the prostate are the seminal vesicles which secrete some additional fluid (called seminal fluid) into the sperm before ejaculation occurs.
The prostatic fluid (slightly acidic) and seminal fluid (alkaline), together with other fluids secreted into the sperm give rise to semen.
Overall, the semen is slightly alkaline; and this helps to counteract the acidity of the vagina, thus protecting the sperm inside the vagina.
For ejaculation to occur in males, the prostate gland must contract, thus pushing the semen into the urethra. During this process of contraction, the opening between the bladder and urethra is obstructed (closed); and for this reason, a male cannot urinate and ejaculate simultaneously (at the same time). Please see the above diagram.
Note: Urine flows from the bladder into the urethra.
As a male advances in age, they become more likely to have some clinical issues with their prostate gland.
Below are two clinical prostate conditions:
1. Prostate Cancer: This is one of the commonest cancers in males. When a patient delays the surgical operation of a prostate cancer, it’s called watchful waiting. It can be treated surgically via the removal of the prostate organ, or by radiation or hormonal therapy.
2. Prostatitis: This is an inflammation of the prostate gland. It is usually treated by using the appropriate antibiotics, as prescribed by the doctor.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or ptyalin which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose.
Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide.
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere