Topics in Basic SciencePrimates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter Benefits and Importance of African Star Apple (Agbalumo or Udara)
Academic Questions in Basic Science
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:
1. Macronutrients: They are also referred to as macro elements.
They are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).
Macronutrients include Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.
2. Micronutrients:They are also referred to as Micro elements or Trace elements or Trace nutrients.
They are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).
The micronutrients include Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.
Below are the Micronutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:
Sources: Liver, Kidneys, Meat, Vegetables and Eggs.
- Formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood.
Please read on Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin here.
- It is a part of myoglobin, cytochromes and chromatins.
- Anemia (Reduced oxygen circulation in the blood).
- General body weakness.
- Soreness of the tongue.
Sources: Seeds, Whole grains, Eggs, Legumes, Meat and Shell fish.
- Acts as a powerful antioxidant.
Please read on the African Star Apple (Agbalumo or Udara) and its Benefits here.
- Assist in wound healing.
- Helps in protein synthesis and collagen formation.
- Boosts the immune System.
- Acts as blood catalyst (in the conversion of carbonic acid into carbon(IV)oxide and water).
- Impaired immune function.
- Delayed sexual maturation, Impotence.
Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.
- Loss of appetite and Diarrhea.
- Lesions of the eyes and skin.
- Acne, eczema, xerosis (dry scaling skin) and alopecia (hair loss).
- Psychological disorders.
Sources: Milk, Meat, Green vegetables, Oysters, Dark chocolate and Eggs.
- Catalyses the absorption of iron from the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract).
- Needed for aerobic respiration in some organisms.
- Anemia (Reduced blood oxygen).
- Low White Blood Cell count.
- Connective tissues disorders.
- Neurological problems.
Sources: Oats, Spinach, Broccoli, Fish and Nuts.
- Assists in the absorption and processing of vitamin B12.
- Helps in blood production.
- Acts as catalyst for the production of thyroid hormones.
- Deficiency of vitamin B12.
- Numbness and fatigue.
- Tingling sensation of the hands and feet.
Sources: Sea foods, Vegetables, Iodized salts, water and Beans.
- Required by the thyroid gland to make the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodithyronine).
Note: The thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism.
- Goiter (swollen neck).
- Poor mental development in children.
Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.
- Cretinism (severely stunted physical and mental growth).
- Fatigue and weakness.
- Increased risk of pregnancy loss.
- Hair loss, dry and flaky skin.
Sources: Beans, Nuts, White meat, Sea food; Eggs and Pork.
- It reduces the damages caused by excessive free radicals.
- It acts as a catalyst for vitamin E.
- Myodegenerative diseases and muscular weakness.
- Depression, anxiety and confusion.
- Male infertility.
- Kashin-Beck disease (Joint swellings and pains).
Please read on All the Bones of the Human Body here.
Sources: Wine, Seafood, coffee, water containing fluorine and Tea.
- Prevention of tooth decay and dental caries.
- Required for bone mineralization and solidification.
Please read on the Human Bone and Types of Bone Cells here.
- Required for the formational of enamel. The enamel is the white part of our teeth and it happens to be the strongest tissue in the human body.
Please read on Some Amazing Facts in Biology here.
- Osteoporosis (weakness and brittleness of bones).
- Dental caries or Tooth decay. Dental caries are caused from the acids produces by bacteria when breakdown food substances within our tooth.
Please read on Acids, Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.
- Dental holes or holes in the gum.
Sources: Beans, Peas, Nuts, Pumpkin, Waterleaf, and Fruits.
- Removal of toxins from the metabolism of sulphur.
- Cell protection against toxins.
- It helps in the activation of antioxidant enzymes.
- It helps the cell to produce energy (ATP) in the mitochondria.
Please read on the Introduction to Biology and the Basic Characteristics of Life here.
- Sulfate toxicity of the body cells.
- Nausea, headache and vomiting.
Note: Molybdenum deficiency is very rare since it is required by the body in very minute quantities. Also, it is present in a variety of food.
Sources: Legumes, Wheat bread, Pineapple, Nuts and Dark chocolate.
- Required for the normal functioning of the nervous system.
- It is required as a cofactor for various bodily enzymes.
- It assists in the growth of bones.
Please read on the Types of Bone here.
- It contributes to the body's immune system.
Please read on Immunization here.
- It is useful in the production of ATP in the cell's mitochondria.
- Poor development of the skeletal system.
Please read on Skeletal Materials and the Differences between Bones and Cartilages here.
- Impaired reproductive activities.
- Stunted growth.
- Improper carbohydrate and fat metabolism.
Sources: Apples, Bananas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Chicken, Beef and Dairy products.
- It is needed for the synthesis of cholesterol.
- It supports the utilization and breakdown of glucose.
Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.
- Enhances carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
- Reduces the rate of hunger.
- Type 2 Diabetes (High blood glucose level).
- High blood cholesterol.
- Heart diseses results.
- Craving for sugary food.
THANKS FOR READING - Please Help Share!
Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in Basic Science
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; when one is said to have blue eyes, it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color
The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.
That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓
🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit
It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow
The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma
Elephants can't jump
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.
Image Credit: Unilad
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.
All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.
Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton
Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.
Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely: