Basic Science

Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients)

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 13th August, 2019 @ 12:34: PM

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Academic Questions in Basic Science

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

The ultimate source of energy is _____.

  1. plants
  2. sun
  3. food
  4. water
  5. air
  6. earth

The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.

TRUE or FALSE

The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.

  • A. Carbohydrate
  • B. Starch
  • C. Protein
  • D. Fats
  • E. Oil
  • F. Lipids

A body at rest possess _____ energy.

  • A. Kinetic
  • B. Potential
  • C. Mechanical
  • D. Chemical

Micronutrients:

Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:

1. Macronutrients: They are also referred to as macro elements.

They are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).

Macronutrients include Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.

2. Micronutrients:They are also referred to as Micro elements or Trace elements or Trace nutrients.

They are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).

The micronutrients include Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.

Please read on Mineral salts, their Sources, Functions and Deficiencies (Macronutrients) here

 

Sources, Functions and Deficiency of Macronutrients

Below are the Micronutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:


1. IRON

Sources: Liver, Kidneys, Meat, Vegetables and Eggs.

Functions

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced oxygen circulation in the blood).
  2. General body weakness.
  3. Soreness of the tongue.
  4. Inflammation.
  5. Headaches.

 

2. ZINC

Sources: Seeds, Whole grains, Eggs, Legumes, Meat and Shell fish.

Functions

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Impaired immune function.
  2. Delayed sexual maturation, Impotence.
    Please read on the Male Reproductive System here.
  3. Loss of appetite and Diarrhea.
  4. Lesions of the eyes and skin.
  5. Acne, eczema, xerosis (dry scaling skin) and alopecia (hair loss).
  6. Psychological disorders.

 

3. COPPER

Sources: Milk, Meat, Green vegetables, Oysters, Dark chocolate and Eggs.

Functions

  • Catalyses the absorption of iron from the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract).
  • Needed for aerobic respiration in some organisms.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Anemia (Reduced blood oxygen).
  2. Low White Blood Cell count.
  3. Connective tissues disorders.
  4. Neurological problems.

 

4. COBALT

Sources: Oats, Spinach, Broccoli, Fish and Nuts.

Functions

  • Assists in the absorption and processing of vitamin B12.
  • Helps in blood production.
  • Acts as catalyst for the production of thyroid hormones.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Deficiency of vitamin B12.
  2. Numbness and fatigue.
  3. Tingling sensation of the hands and feet.

 

5. IODINE

Sources: Sea foods, Vegetables, Iodized salts, water and Beans.

Functions

  • Required by the thyroid gland to make the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodithyronine).

Note: The thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism.

Please read on Homeostasis here.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Goiter (swollen neck).
  2. Poor mental development in children.
    Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.
  3. Cretinism (severely stunted physical and mental growth).
  4. Fatigue and weakness.
  5. Increased risk of pregnancy loss.
  6. Hair loss, dry and flaky skin.

 

6. SELENIUM

Sources: Beans, Nuts, White meat,  Sea food; Eggs and Pork.

Functions

  • It reduces the damages caused by excessive free radicals.
  • It acts as a catalyst for vitamin E.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Myodegenerative diseases and muscular weakness.
  2. Depression, anxiety and confusion.
  3. Male infertility.
  4. Kashin-Beck disease (Joint swellings and pains).
    Please read on All the Bones of the Human Body here.

 

7. FLUORINE

Sources: Wine, Seafood, coffee, water containing fluorine and Tea.

Functions

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Osteoporosis (weakness and brittleness of bones).
  2. Dental caries or Tooth decay. Dental caries are caused from the acids produces by bacteria when breakdown food substances within our tooth.
    Please read on Acids, Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids here.
  3. Dental holes or holes in the gum.

 

8. MOLYBDENUM

Sources: Beans, Peas, Nuts, Pumpkin, Waterleaf, and Fruits.

Functions

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Sulfate toxicity of the body cells.
  2. Nausea, headache and vomiting.

Note: Molybdenum deficiency is very rare since it is required by the body in very minute quantities. Also, it is present in a variety of food.

 

9. MANGANESE

Sources: Legumes, Wheat bread, Pineapple, Nuts and Dark chocolate.

Functions

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Poor development of the skeletal system.
    Please read on Skeletal Materials and the Differences between Bones and Cartilages here.
  2. Impaired reproductive activities.
  3. Stunted growth.
  4. Diabetes.
  5. Improper carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

 

10. CHROMIUM

Sources: Apples, Bananas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Chicken, Beef and Dairy products.

Functions

  • It is needed for the synthesis of cholesterol.
  • It supports the utilization and breakdown of glucose.
    Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.
  • Enhances carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
  • Reduces the rate of hunger.

Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Type 2 Diabetes (High blood glucose level).
  2. High blood cholesterol.
  3. Heart diseses results.
  4. Craving for sugary food.
  5. Depression.

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len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye. 

Eyebrows perform two main functions:

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  2. It helps us express our emotions.

Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.

Image Credit: Unilad

Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.

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Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton

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Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely:

  • Solid
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