Topics in Basic ScienceLen Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning mass and weight?
A. Mass is the amount of matter in a body
B. The element hydrogen has the smallest mass
C. You will weigh more on planet jupiter than earth
D. Weight is a function of gravity
E. Mass and Weight have different Standard International (S.I) Units
F. None of the above
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning matter?
A. Anything considered as matter must either have mass or occupy space
B. Air is an example of matter
C. Plasma is a state of matter
D. Chemistry is considered as the study of matter and the changes they undergo
E. Vacuum is a space completely void of matter
F. Matter will always take up space no matter how small or invincible it is to the eyes
Which of the following is NOT matter?
F. None of the above
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
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Mineral salts are one of the classes of food alongside carbohydrates, protein, fats and oils, vitamins and water.
Minerals are inorganic substances (that is, they don't contain carbon); and are present in every form of food chain (from the producers -> consumers -> decomposers).
As an instance, plants absorb minerals from fertilizers and soil nutrients. Animals ingest these minerals when they eat plants and other animals.
Note: Minerals are also present in nature as they move through cycles, for instance, nitrogen cycle.
Our bodies are unable to synthesize mineral salts. As a result, we must get them from the food we eat. Interestingly, they are present in most of our food; and it is recommended we eat a varied diet so as to get all the different elements that make them up.
Mineral salts are always eliminated in metabolic waste products like sweat and urine. They are also lost in feces although feces isn’t a metabolic waste product.
Mineral salts are essential nutrients required by organisms if they are to function properly.
In total, they account for approximately 4% - 6% of the total body mass in humans. (Calcium accounts for most of this value).
Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:
Macronutrients are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).
Examples of macronutrients are Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.
The micronutrients are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).
Examples of micronutrients are Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.
Plants and animals require mineral salts for the proper functioning of their internal systems.
Animals are required to take some of these mineral salts in minute or small quantities via their various food substances, although a few can be eaten directly; for instance iron and sodium chloride (common salt).
Lack of mineral salts in the body system will lead to deficiency diseases.
A deficiency disease is a disease caused by the lack of an element in the diet; usually relating to a vitamin or mineral.
Examples of deficiency diseases include scurvy, beriberi, rickets, osteomalacia, pellagra, xerophthalmia and hypocalcemia.
Below are the Macro-nutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:
Sources: Bones, Milk, Cheese, Egg, Fish, Vegetables, Carrot, Orange and Dairy products.
Sources: Table Salt, Fish, Sea foods and Fruits.
Sources: Tomatoes, Avocados, Dried apricots and Meat.
Sources: Egg, Wheat, Cheese, Milk, Fish and Diets high in protein.
Sources: Green vegetables, Dairy products, Whole grains cereals, and Meat.
Sources: Meat, Milk and Egg.
Sources: Table Salt, Fish and Fruits.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things
🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges
Rain water contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.
We have four types of polysaccharides namely:
Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.
Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.
Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.
Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.
Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.
The uniqueness of man can be defined as that which makes man distinct from every other animal and living organism.
Humans are higher animals when compared to other animals.
Under the classification of living organisms, humans belong to an order termed primates and thus share the same characteristics (as primates). In addition to these features, they also have their unique characteristics.
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike logo.
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty.
All fruits have seeds.
There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.