Topics in Basic SciencePrimates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: Carbohydrates and Sugars Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man Waste Management: Types of Waste Matter: Concept of Matter Benefits and Importance of African Star Apple (Agbalumo or Udara)
Academic Questions in Basic Science
The ultimate source of energy is _____.
The speed of wind is measured with a wind vane.
TRUE or FALSE
The nutrient majorly found in the liver is _____.
A body at rest possess _____ energy.
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Mineral salts are one of the classes of food alongside carbohydrates, protein, fats and oils, vitamins and water.
Minerals are inorganic substances (that is, they don't contain carbon); and are present in every form of food chain (from the producers -> consumers -> decomposers).
As an instance, plants absorb minerals from fertilizers and soil nutrients. Animals ingest these minerals when they eat plants and other animals.
Note: Minerals are also present in nature as they move through cycles, for instance, nitrogen cycle.
Our bodies are unable to synthesize mineral salts. As a result, we must get them from the food we eat. Interestingly, they are present in most of our food; and it is recommended we eat a varied diet so as to get all the different elements that make them up.
Mineral salts are always eliminated in metabolic waste products like sweat and urine. They are also lost in feces although feces isn’t a metabolic waste product.
Mineral salts are essential nutrients required by organisms if they are to function properly.
In total, they account for approximately 4% - 6% of the total body mass in humans. (Calcium accounts for most of this value).
Minerals salts are generally classified into two types based on the amount required by the body (on a daily basis). These are:
Macronutrients are needed in a relatively large amount (more than 100mg per day).
Examples of macronutrients are Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Phosphorus and Sulphur.
The micronutrients are needed in small to moderate amounts (less than 100mg per day).
Examples of micronutrients are Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluorine, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Cobalt.
Plants and animals require mineral salts for the proper functioning of their internal systems.
Animals are required to take some of these mineral salts in minute or small quantities via their various food substances, although a few can be eaten directly; for instance iron and sodium chloride (common salt).
Lack of mineral salts in the body system will lead to deficiency diseases.
A deficiency disease is a disease caused by the lack of an element in the diet; usually relating to a vitamin or mineral.
Examples of deficiency diseases include scurvy, beriberi, rickets, osteomalacia, pellagra, xerophthalmia and hypocalcemia.
Below are the Macro-nutrients, their Sources, Functions and Deficiency Symptoms:
Sources: Bones, Milk, Cheese, Egg, Fish, Vegetables, Carrot, Orange and Dairy products.
Sources: Table Salt, Fish, Sea foods and Fruits.
Sources: Tomatoes, Avocados, Dried apricots and Meat.
Sources: Egg, Wheat, Cheese, Milk, Fish and Diets high in protein.
Sources: Green vegetables, Dairy products, Whole grains cereals, and Meat.
Sources: Meat, Milk and Egg.
Sources: Table Salt, Fish and Fruits.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; when one is said to have blue eyes, it's because the iris is blue
Among all land animals, 🐘 Elephants 🐘 have the longest gestation period.
They stay pregnant for 22 months before giving birth to their young
🦘 Kangaroos 🦘 can't walk backwards
The 🥛 milk 🥛 of an 🦛 hippopotamus 🦛 is pink in color
The seed of all fruits are present on the inside with the exception of one.
That exception is 🍓 strawberry 🍓
🍓 strawberry 🍓 has it's seed outside the fruit
It actually takes 🍍 pineapples 🍍 2 years to grow
The liquid inside a coconut 🥥 can be used as an excellent substitute for your blood plasma
Elephants can't jump
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
The eyebrow is an area of dense, delicate hair just above the eye.
Eyebrows perform two main functions:
Eyebrow modified in the form of Nike.
Image Credit: Unilad
Note: Eyebrows can also be modified to enhance beauty; especially female beauty.
All fruits have seeds. There is nothing like a naturally occurring seedless fruit. Even banana, coconut and pineapple have all got seeds.
Weight can be defined as the force of gravity acting on an object. If you traveled to space, you would be weightless because there isn't any force of gravity acting there. We all have weight on earth becasue the force of gravity acts here. Weight is measured in Newton
Massis the amount or quantity of matter/material contained in a body, For instance, everything you are composed of, both from within and outside will make up your mass. Mass is constant throughout the universe. You will have the same mass on earth and moon. Mass is measured in gram or kilogram. Mass is quite different from weight.
Matter is anything that has mass and occupy space. Matter can exist in four states namely: