Topics in GovernmentScheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System Pressure Group: Types of Pressure Group Characteristics of Pressure Group Constitution - Types of Constitution Government - Scope of Government Government - Characteristics of Government Government - Importance of Government One-Party System explained Multi-Party System explained with its Characteristics Party System: Zero Party System Two-Party System explained with its Characteristics Democracy and Types of Democracy Democracy - Characteristics of Democracy Government - Types and Forms of Government Government - Functions of Government What is Government? Definitions of Government
Academic Questions in Government
Government may be defined as an agency or machinery or instrument that is established to manage the general welfare of the people that make up a country.
In the above statement, government is defined _____.
A. As a process
B. As an act of governing
C. As an institution of a state
D. As an academic field o study
E. As a political wheel
F. As a machine of movement
Which of the following statement is false regarding the constitution?
A. No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister of a country
B. A constitution can be written or unwritten
C. The constitution consists of the fundamental human rights of citizens of a nation
D. The constitution does not necessarily allocate power to the different arms of government
E. The constitution upholds the people's sovereignty
F. A good constitution is neither too rigid not too flexible
A form of government whereby each state that makes up a country has the power to govern itself and manage it's own resources is known as _____.
The following are examples of pressure group in Nigeria except _____.
A. End SARS
B. Committee for the Defence of Human Rights (CDHR)
C. Odua Peoples Congress (OPC)
D. Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)
E. Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)
H. National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS)
Which of the following is not an ethnic pressure group in Nigeria?
A. Bring Back our Girls (BBOG)
C. Ohanaeze Ndigbo
D. Middle Belt Forum (MBF)
E. Arewa Consultative Forum
F. Ijaw Youth Council (IYC)
The followings are ways to achieve gender equality except _____.
A. Education of the girl child
B. Encouraging women to go into power
C. Putting a stop to child marriage
D. Encouraging women to vote for women during elections
E. Empowering girls and women
F. Making laws that prohibits sexual harassment
The absence of government in a country or state is referred to as _____.
The definition of democracy as 'Government of the people, by the people and for the people' is a concept of _____.
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The popular term Democracy originated from the fusion of two Greek words. These are “Demos” which means people and “Kratia” meaning government or rule.
According to one of the greatest American presidents of all time, Abraham Lincoln, (the 16th American President) expressed democracy in its popular definition which is:
Government of the people, by the people and for the people
Note: Democracy is one of the forms of government and it allows the people to choose their leaders.
If the democratically elected leaders are failing in their responsibility, democracy also permits that such leaders can be rejected by the people. This is true because the power to choose and reject the leaders is vested on the people in democratized society.
With the popular notion that the power to choose various leaders and those vying for political offices are vested in the hands of the people, democracy has shown the following characteristics as explained below:
A constitution is highest or supreme law in a country, nation or state and it specifies how such nation or state should be governed. In democracy, the constitution rise above everyone no matter their status or rank.
It is the supremacy of the constitution that permits for the removal of a democratically elected official. Such official (even if he or she is the president of a nation) may be made to face trial at a law court if certain sections of the constitution had been violated.
Supremacy of the constitution is a very important feature of democracy because it gives rise to the popular phrase:
“No one is above the law”.
Note: Where there is the presence of massive corruption is a country, constitutional supremacy become ineffective or dysfunctional.
You may have heard of the popular saying:
The voice of the people is the voice of God.
This saying may have emanated from democracy since the voice or vote of majority of the people determines their leaders.
The process of a free and fair election is the most important tool in which democracy utilizes in determining the rule of the majority. This implies that majority of the people will determine the political positions of electoral candidates (for instance; the presidential candidates) through their vote.
Note: Without the vote of a majority of the people, one cannot be a political officer in a democratized society.
This is one of the fundamental human rights and democracy permits for its realization.
The freedom of expression empowers the media and the general public to report any activity of the government.
Through the internet, we saw how policemen shot some alleged criminals at a pointblank range without any form of trial and conviction.
This unconstitutional act was brought to light through the social media; and all thanks to democracy.
Note: The absence of democracy may result to the ban of mass media from reporting issues (especially the negatives of the incumbent government); be it on the radio, television or the internet at large. This is what actually happens in a military or dictatorship form of government.
In democracy, every citizen has the right to vote and be voted for. Also, there is the principle of "one man", "one vote" to further express political equality.
Note: If one thinks he or she has what it takes to bring about a positive change in the society (at a political level); they can register with a political party, or form a new political party; and such person(s) will be voted into power in a free and fair election if the majority of the people entrust him or her with their vote.
We should not disenfranchise ourselves by not utilizing either or both of our democratic rights; that is right to vote and be voted for.
Separation of power is an important characteristic in a democratic state. This imply that one arm of government must be on oversight by another arm who checks their excesses.
As an instance, the executive arm of government (comprising of the President, Vice Presidents, and Ministers amongst others) must be checked by the Legislative and Judiciary arms of governments. To this end, the president can even be impeached by the Upper and Lower Houses (Legislators) if he or she is found guilty of breaking some important rule of law.
The arms or branches of government are:
One of the meanings of the word sovereignty is “to be in control”.
Popular sovereignty in democracy imply that the vote of the people have total control over any government decision.
Always note that the main goal of democracy is to invest the power to "govern" or choose "who governs" on the people. For this reason, the vote of the majority is considered to be popular and sovereign.
In a democratic system, political parties are established and they house the political aspirants.
Ideally, we should have two or more political parties so that the people can optimally vote for their preferred candidates through their party.
Oftentimes, we seem to have a strong opposition party to the ruling party; and that’s a good thing for democracy. In fact, it would even be better if we can have more than two strong opposition parties in a political system.
In Nigeria, the "All Progressive Congress" (APC) and "Peoples Democratic Party" (PDP) are the two major opposition parties.
United States of America have got the "Democratic Party" and the "Republicans" as the two strongest opposition parties. Apart from these two, three other thriving parties are the:
Each citizen of a Nation is entitled to his or her fundamental human rights. These rights are often spelt out in the constitution of a nation.
Note: An important feature of democracy is the respect for these rights.
Some of the Fundamental Human Rights of every citizen include:
In democracy, the law of the Land must rule above everyone, even the president of the country.
In a democratized society, No one is above the rule of Law.
This rule of law is supreme. For this reason, it gives rise to equality, equity and justice which are often visible in a democratized society.
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Amazing facts in Government
NOTABLE POINTS IN Government
Dictatorship is one of the forms of Government. It can exist either as:
In 1966, Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi became the first military Head of State in Nigeria after he overthrew a democratic and constitutional government (headed by the prime minister; Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)
The above instance is a military form of dictatorship.
A typical example of a civilian dictatorship is Adolf Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia and Georgia
A Pressure group is defined as any formal and organized body or group of people with the same interest and whose main goal is to put pressure on any governmental institution in order to influence government policies and laws to their own gain.
An example of a pressure group whose voice is often heard in Nigeria is the Academic Staff Union for Universities (ASUU).
Another instance of a pressure group in Nigeria is the Bring Back Our Girls (BBOG) group who pressured the Nigerian Government into taking appropriate actions towards the release of the 276 kidnapped female secondary students popularly referred to as the Chibok Girls, in Chibok, Bornu State, Nigeria.
Note: These innocent female students were kidnapped by the so called "Boko Haram" on the night of April 14th - 15th, 2014.
The above pressure group was massive globally to an extent that even the first ladies of various foreign countries became a part of it.
The EndsSars is another pressure group in Nigeria. They forced the Nigerian government into scrapping the Special Anti-Robbery Squard (SARS) who had constantly brutalized the Nigerian youths.
If men and women enjoyed the same rights, same freedom, same opportunities, same resources and same rewards in all sectors of society, then that's gender equality.
Gender equality is the process of being fair to humans; both males and females.
Below are some ways towards achieving gender equality.
Education of the girl child
Encouraging women to go into power
Putting a stop to sexual harassment and child marriage
Women and girls empowerment
Putting a stop to harmful traditional practices against women
Stopping the violence and war
Anarchy is one of the forms of government. Ironically, it is the absence of government in a society, country or state.
An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land/area.
Other forms of government includes:
Democracy is a form of government where the power of choosing a leader is vested on the people. It represents a government of the people, by the people and for the people.
According to Abrahim Lincoln,
Democracy means government of the people, by the people and for the people.
In democracy, the citizens have the rights to vote and be voted for. The citizens are mandated to choose their preferred candidate by voting for them through their political party. In fact, this voting process is considered as one of the civic responsibility of every citizen.
Note: No one is above the rule of law in the democratic system. If the election outcome does not reflect the mandate of the people, a court of competent jurisdiction can nullify such election.
Democracy is practiced in countries like Nigeria, United States of America, India and South Africa.