Chemistry

Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 14th December, 2019 @ 18:50: PM

Topics in Chemistry

Le Chatelier's Principle: Changes in Concentration and Pressure explained in Dynamic Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium: Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemistry Static and Dynamic Equilibrium explained with their Differences Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry


Academic Questions in Chemistry

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following statement is false concerning hydrocarbons?

  • A. Hydrocarbons can be aromatic

  • B. Hydrocarbons are made up of carbon and hydrogen only

  • C. Alkynes are aliphatic hydrocarbons

  • D. Alkenes have a carbon-carbon double bond in their structure

  • E. Benzene ring has a carbon-carbon triple bond in its structure

  • F. Hydrocarbons are the main constituents of petroleum and natural gas

The ability of carbon to form long chain of itself is called _____.

  • A. Carbon chain reaction

  • B. Catenation

  • C. Carbontion

  • D. Carbontion

  • E. Organic chemistry

  • F. Carbon moleculation

Calculate the relative molecular mass of methane. (Carbon = 12.001, H = 1.00794).

  • A. 13.00894 amu

  • B. 11.00206 amu

  • C. 12.00794 amu

  • D. 14.001 amu

  • E. 15.001 amu

  • F. 16.033 amu

Which of he following is not a fact concerning gold?

  • A. 24 karat gold is the purest gold element

  • B. It is the 50th rarest metal amongst all elements found beneath the earth crust

  • C. It is the most malleable and ductile pure metal ever known

  • D. It is the only metal with a golden color

  • E. Gold is non toxic and can be eaten with food

  • F. It's present inside the earth crust in all seven continents

Which of the following is not an example of a chemical change?

  • A. The burning of wood
  • B. The melting of candle wax
  • C. The decomposition of food
  • D. The rotting of leaves
  • E. The lightening of a match stick
  • F. None of the above

Which of the following is not a fraction of crude oil?

  • A. Gasoline
  • B. Naphtha
  • C. Benzene
  • D. Wax
  • E. Paraffin
  • F. Lubrication Oil

The Separating Funnel is a technique used in the separation of mixtures. Another name for Separating Funnel is the _____ Funnel.

  • A. Partition
  • B. Separatory
  • C. Division
  • D. Liquid
  • E. Half
  • F. Dividing

2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN

The equation above represents _____ acid.

  • A. Svante Arrhenius'

  • B. Brønsted–Lowry's

  • C. Gilbert Lewis'

  • D. Avogadro's

  • E. Sir Isaac Newton's

  • F. Albert Einstein's

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Liquid State of Matter:

Liquids are one of the states of matter alongside solids, gases and plasma. The main difference between each of these states of matter emanates from the nature of their particles.

Think of a particle as the smallest part that makes up anything.

For instance, by grinding a sugar cube, we will expose each of it's constituent particles.

Please read on Solids and their Characteristics here.

In another instance; whenever we cook (let's say a soup or stew), we will likely expose the particles of a maggi cube by grinding it before addition into our soup or stew. The reason why we do this is to separate and expose the constituent particles that make up the maggi cube so they can easily dissolve into our soup.

Regarding the above instances, if you can take out a single (smallest) particle from the grinded sugar, then, such sugar particle can be considered as an atom of the sugar.

Similarly, each of the (single) particle that dissolves into the soup make up the atoms of the maggi.

By definition, an atom is the smallest part (or particle) of a substance that can take part in a chemical reaction.

Note: Understanding the concept of matter, atoms and particles will prove useful regarding the states of matter.

Please read on the Concept of Matter here.

The terms atom and particle will be used interchangeable in order to help you better understand liquids (as a state of matter).

Liquids have spaces between their atoms; thus its particles can exhibit some degree of movement.

The particles of a liquid are loosely packed together.

The image below shows the loosely arranged particles (atoms) in a liquids:

Particles of Liquid - Len Academy
Structure of Liquid Particles in a Beaker

Spaces are present between the liquid particles because their atoms are held by a very weak force. These spaces are large enough to make the atoms move or flow. As a result, you can put you finger through a liquid and pull it out again.

Note: A liquid cannot be handed to another person without the help of a container, else, it pours off. This is so because their atoms are loosely packed together.

A liquid will therefore always assume the shape of it's container.

Even in lakes and rivers, the bank, river bed (or bottom) and the shore forms its container or boundary.

Please read on Gases and their Characteristics here.

The density of liquids will also depend on the atoms they are composed of; for instance, 10kg of water will not weight the same as 10kg of red oil because their constituent atoms are different. (In the case of water, it's constituent atoms are hydrogen and oxygen respectively).

You can read more on the Density of various Substances here.

Note: The particles that make up a liquid can still be compressed such that they become more closer to themselves. The refrigerator is an example of a technology that compresses liquid particles. (This is how water is transformed into ice).

Please read on the Mechanism of Action in a Refrigerator here.

Characteristics of Liquids

  1. They assume the shape of the container.
  2. Their particles are loosely packed together, hence they can be slightly compressed.
  3. Their particle possesses low energy for movement and rotational motion, hence they can flow to an extent.
  4. They have fixed volume but no fixed shape. Liquids will generally assume the shape of their containers.
  5. Under normal conditions, they have boiling points above room temperatures.
    Please read on the Concepts of Heat and Temperature here.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Chemistry

The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:

J     &     Q

Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.

Please read some interesting facts about gold here

Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children utilize 'copper' water bottles in schools

Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold

Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.

Please read on modification of Dalton's atomic theory here.

If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.

Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre


NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry

A major challenge encountered when calculating molecular mass is that it becomes difficult or impossible to calculate especially when the relative molecular mass of large molecules, polymers and macromolecules are involved.

Examples of large molecules (with indefinite molecular masses) include carbohydrates, cellulose and complex sugars.

The large molecules (above) have no specific chemical formula throughout their volume.

Please read more on Carbohydrates and Sugars here

Understand that Relative Molecular Mass prove to be useful only when we calculate substances with small and definite molecular sizes. This was proven through the Modifications of Dalton's Atomic Theory.

Please read on Dalton's Atomic Theory and its Modifications here.

Calculate the Relative Molecular Mass of Methane (CH4). (Carbon=12.001 and H=1.00794)

  • Molecular Mass = Atomic mass of carbon + Atomic mass of Hydrogen
  • Methane is composed of one atom of Carbon and 4 atoms of Hydrogen.
  • 12.001 + (1.00794 x 4)

Molecular Mass of Methane = 16.033 amu

Please read more on molecular mass here


Calculate the Relative Molecular Mass of Water (H2O). (Oxygen=15.9994 and Hydrogen=1.00794)

  • Molecular Mass = Atomic mass of Hydrogen + Atomic mass of Oxygen
  • Water contains 2 atoms of Hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen.
  • (1.00794 x 2) + 15.9994

Molecular Mass of Water = 18.015 Da

Please read on Emperical Formula and its Calculations here

Gold ; Len Academy

Below are some facts about gold

  • It is the only metal that has a gold (golden) color.

  • Gold is present inside the earth crust in all the seven continents.

  • Pure gold is soft and very stretchable (It can even be stretched into threads).

  • The Latin name of Gold is aurum which means 'shining dawn'. For this reason, its chemical symbol is 'Au'.

  • Gold is a very good conductor of electricity. This is why it’s sometimes used in making USB and audio cables.

  • Gold is non toxic and can be eaten with food. It is sometimes added to desserts in some expensive restaurants.

  • The term Gold originated from an ancient English word 'geolu' which means yellow.

  • 24karat gold is the purest gold element.

Please read more interesting facts about gold here

An acid is a substance that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water (or when in the form of an aqueous solution).

Svante Arrhenius definition of Acid

 

An acid is a substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction.

Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry definition of Acid

 

An acid is a substance that accept an electron pair in a chemical reaction.

Gilbert Newton Lewis definition of Acid

 

Finally, Acids can also be also defined as substances that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water.

 

In summary, all acids will always contain the positive H+ (cation) and an anionic group in their formula. For instance, the acid HCl (Hydrogen Chloride) contains H+ as cation and Cl- as its anion.

Please read the explanations of the above definitions of acid here