Chemistry

States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 14th December, 2019 @ 6:50 PM

Topics in Chemistry

Gas laws in chemistry Charles's law explained Calculation questions on Charles's law Examples of Charles's law in real life Boyle's law explained Calculation questions on Boyle's law Examples of Boyle's law in real life Summary on the kinetic molecular theory of gases Postulates of kinetic theory of gases Avogadro's number explained with worked examples Mole and Avogadro's Number explained Le Chatelier's Principle: Changes in concentration and pressure in dynamic equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium: Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemistry Static and Dynamic Equilibrium explained with their differences Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures What are mixtures? Characteristics of mixtures


Academic Questions in Chemistry

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

With regards to redox reactions, which of the following statement is wrong?

  • A. Redox reaction are examples of chemical change

  • B. Reduction is the gain of electron

  • C. Substances that donates election during chemical reaction are termed reductants

  • D. Oxidizing agents are always reduced in chemical reactions

  • E. Oxidation occurs at the cathode in electrolysis

  • F. Hydrogen is a reducing agent

In chemistry, physical change is associated only with the rearrangement of molecules while the internal composition of the substance remains the same.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ electron(s) is a term that describes the number of electron(s) in the outermost shell of an atom.

  • A. Outer

  • B. Excess

  • C. Valence

  • D. Positive

  • E. Negative

  • F. Last

_____ is the negative electrode in electrolysis.

  • A. Anode

  • B. Anion

  • C. Cathode

  • D. Cation

  • E. Ion

  • F. Electrolyte

Electrovalent Bond - Len Academy

The above diagram shows the _____ type of bond.

  • A. Covalent

  • B. Polar covalent

  • C. Coordinate covalent

  • D. Metallic

  • E. Van dear walls

  • F. Ionic

 Metals are referred to as _____ in their impure state.

  • A. Diluted

  • B. Consecrated

  • C. Coloured

  • D. Ores

  • E. Stained

  • F. Strained

Metals generally have the quality to shine, glow, sparkle, glitter, reflect light and be polished. This characteristic of metals is termed _____.

  • A. State

  • B. Ductility

  • C. Luster

  • D. Malleability

  • E. Hardness

  • F. Inflorescence

The _____ spectrometry experiment conducted on isotopic elements gave a confirmation for the existence of isotopes.

  • A. Mole

  • B. Volume

  • C. Weight

  • D. Number of moles

  • E. Mass

  • F. Amount of substance



States of Matter:

Matter exists in four states. They are:

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas
  4. Plasma

All matter is made up of atoms.

Please read on the concept of matter here.

An understanding on relationship between atoms and particles will give you a better insight on the states of matter. Below is a brief explanation:


An atom is defined the smallest part (particle) of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction. Consider the simple analogy below:

  • From your salt pack at home, attempt to pick out the smallest single salt particle from it. If you can do that, then you may have probably succeeded in picking out an atom of the salt, although this is practically impossible.

The above concept of particles (and atoms) will be used to explain the solid state of matter.

You can read on the modifications of Dalton's atomic theory here.


Solid state of matter

Solids are substances whose atoms or particles are tightly packed together. As a result, they have definite shapes and volume. This is true because a strong force of attraction exists between the solid particles, thus holding them firmly together.

Please read on the liquid state of matter and its characteristics here.


You will not be able to put your fingers through a solid, unless you separate its tightly packed particles; perhaps by grinding the solid. This instance can be seen in a sugar cube or maggi cube. We will need to grind its particles before we can put our hands through them.

In the case of the maggi cube (above), we will usually expose each of its particles or atoms into our food by grinding it. This will enable each particle of the maggi to easily dissolve into the food.

If you wish to expose the atoms in solids, you will have to grind the solid substance into its fineness of particles.

Please read on the physical properties of metals here.


Although the atoms in solids are tightly packed together, we still have tiny spaces between them. Based on this fact, the more tightly packed solids are (that is; the smaller the spaces between its particle), the more dense (heavy) they are likely to be.

The density of solids will also depend on the type of element they are made up of. For instance, although iron (Fe) and sodium (Na) are solid elements, iron will always be denser than sodium because its atoms has a larger mass than those of sodium.

Please read on density and specific gravity here.


The image below shows the closely arranged particles (atoms) in solids:

Particles of Solid - Len Academy


Solid particles do not require any compression because they are already tightly packed together. Meanwhile, recall that compression means to bring closer the particles that makes up a substance.

You can read on some interesting facts on the gold here.


Characteristics of solids

  1. They have definite shape and volume.
  2. Their particles are closely packed together, hence they are usually incompressible.
  3. Their particle possesses very little energy for movement and rotational motion.
  4. Their particles exhibit vibrational motion within their position.
  5. The particles of crystalline solids are orderly arranged while those of amorphous solids aren't arranged orderly. Examples of crystalline solids include common salt, sugar and sulphur while rubber, plastics and glass are amorphous solids.

Please read on gases and their characteristics here.

Kindly share this article via the links below:


len


Please click here to contact Alfred if you require any of the following services:

  • If you need a standard website at an affordable price.

  • Online training on the academic subjects: biology, chemistry and basic science.

  • If you require an advanced smart school management system (web application) for your school.

Click here to read on Len Academy Smart School Software.


Please click here to follow Len Academy on Google News.


Please Register here or Login here to contribute to this topic by commenting in the box below.


Amazing facts in Chemistry

Plastic and Glass can decompose, but not in our lifetimes. It takes an average time of 450 years for plastics to decompose. As for the decomposition of glasses, it takes about 4,000 years

The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:

J     &     Q

Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.

Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. For this reason, some children utilize 'copper water bottles' in schools

Water freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold

Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy

If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.

Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre


Notable points in Chemistry

Below are the physical properties of metals:

  1. They exist in solid state.

  2. The have high densities.

  3. They are good conductors of heat and electricity.

  4. The have the ability to be polished, to glow, sparkle and reflect light.

  5. They can be bent, flattened and made into sheets called foils.

  6. They can be drawn into wires.

  7. Iron undergoes magnetism while most metals are poorly magnetized.

  8. They typical have high melting point.

  9. They generally have high boiling point.

  10. With the exception of lithium, sodium and potassium, most metals are generally hard.

  11. They have the ability to make sound when in contact with other objects or metals.

  12. Please read details on the physical properties of metals here

John Dalton is an English chemist who brought clarity into the composition of matter and the basis for their chemical reactions.

Below are Dalton's Atomic Theory:

  1. All matter consists of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.

  2. Atoms of the same element are identical to each other in every aspect because they have the same shape and mass, while atoms of different elements are different in all respect.

  3. Atoms are indestructible and can neither be created nor destroyed.

  4. Atoms of different elements can combine with each other in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.

  5. Atoms of the same element share similar physical and chemical properties. They can also combine in more than one ratio to form two or more compounds.

Meanwhile, understand that the above theories of John Dalton had been modified.

Please read on Dalton's atomic theory and its modifications here

Periodic Table - Len Academy

The periodic table, also called periodic table of elements or Mendeleev's table, is a table that shows an organized arrangement of the 118 chemical elements according to their atomic number.

Out of the 118 elements; elements 1 - 94 are present in nature while elements 95 - 118 are synthesized artificially.

The manner at which elements are arranged on this table reveals some similarities in their electronic configurations and chemical properties.

Please read on the periodic table of elements here.

A compound composed of iron (Fe) and oxygen (O) was analyzed and found to contain 69.94% iron and 30.06% oxygen. Find the empirical formula of the compound. (Molar mass of Fe=55.85, O=16)

  • Solution:

Step 1: Identify the given parameter from the question.

  • Fe = 69.94%,   O = 30.06%.

  • Empirical formula = Fe?O?

 

Step 2: Convert the percentages to gram. (just attribute grams to the %).

  • 69.94% = 69.94g while 30.06% = 30.06g

 

Step 3: To get the mole ratio of each element, convert the gram to moles using the formula (mole = mass/molarmass). Please merorize this formula because we always work with moles in emperical formula.

  • Mole of Fe: 69.94/55.85 = 1.252mol

  • Mole of O: 30.06/16 = 1.879mol

 

Step 4: Divide both sides by the smallest mole ratio.

  • Iron has the smallest mole ratio in our case, therefore: 1.252/1.252 = 1,    1.879/1.252 = 1.5

  • We now have the formula = Fe1O1.5

 

Step 5: Multiply each of the moles by the smallest whole number that will convert each into a whole number. (In our case, the number '2' is the smallest whole number that will make '1.5' and '1' whole numbers when multiplied by it.

  • For iron (Fe), we will have 1 x 2 = 2

  • For oxygen (O), we will have 1.5 x 2 = 3

 

Step 6: Write the empirical formula.

  • The empirical formula= Fe2O3

  • Iron(III)tetraoxosulphate(VI)

In chemistry, hydrocarbons can be classified as either aliphatic or aromatic. Recently, both classifications of hydrocarbon were based on their structure rather than their origin.

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are put into three main groups according to the types of bonds they possess. These are:

  1. Alkanes

  2. Alkenes

  3. Alkynes

They are shown in the image below:

Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - Len Academy

It's important to note the followings:

  • Alkanes have single bonds (only) in their structures.

  • Alkenes always have a carbon-carbon double bond present in their structure.

  • Alkynes always have a carbon-carbon triple bond present in their structure.

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons are classified into:

  • Arenes: They contain benzene ring as a structural unit. Below is the structure of a benzene ring.

Benzene Ring - Len Academy

 

  • Nonbenzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons: They possess special stability but lack a benzene ring as a structural unit.