Topics in ChemistryLe Chatelier's Principle: Changes in Concentration and Pressure explained in Dynamic Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium: Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemistry Static and Dynamic Equilibrium explained with their Differences Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Chemistry Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Compounds in Chemistry: Characteristics of Compounds Types of Mixture: Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures: Characteristics of Mixtures Physical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Chemical Properties of Matter explained with Examples Differences between Physical and Chemical Change Ionic Theory and Electrolysis Physical and Chemical Properties of Acids States of Matter: Characteristics of Solids Liquid State of Matter: Characteristics of Liquids Gaseous State of Matter: Characteristics of Gases Molar Mass, Worked Examples and Differences with Molecular Mass Elements: Characteristics of Elements Salts and Types of Salt in Chemistry
Academic Questions in Chemistry
The Separating Funnel is a technique used in the separation of mixtures. Another name for Separating Funnel is the _____ Funnel.
2NH4+(aq) + Ag+(aq) -> 2H4AgN
The equation above represents _____ acid.
A. Svante Arrhenius'
C. Gilbert Lewis'
E. Sir Isaac Newton's
F. Albert Einstein's
According to Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry, an acid is defined as _____.
A. Any substance that produces hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water
B. A substance that accepts electron pair in a chemical reaction
C. A substance that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water
D. A substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction
E. A substance that reacts with a base to form salt and water
F. A substance whose hydrogen ions (H+) are displaced after a reaction with metals higher in the activity, reactivity or electrochemical series
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chemical change?
Which of the following statement is FALSE concerning a physical change _____.
The following substances will sublime EXCEPT _____.
Which of the following is a state of matter?
The ideal way of separating a mixture of blood is through _____.
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Matter exists in four states. They are:
All matter is made up of atoms.
Note: An understanding on relationship between atoms and particles will give you a better insight on the states of matter. Below is a brief explanation:
Consider the simple experiment below:
From your salt pack at home, attempt to pick out the smallest single salt particle in it. If you can do that, then you may have probably succeeded in picking out an atom of the salt; that is (the smallest particle of the salt).
The above concept of particles (and atoms) will be used to explain the solid state of matter.
Solids are substances whose atoms or particles are tightly packed together, and as a result, they have a definite shape.
There is a strong force of attraction that exists around the solid particles, thus holding them together.
You will not be able to put your fingers through a solid, unless you separate it's tightly packed particles; perhaps by grinding the solid. (This instance can be seen in a sugar cube or maggi cube. We will need to grind its particles before we can put our hands through them).
In the case of the maggi cube (above), we will usually expose each of its particles or atoms into our food by grinding it. This will enable each particle of the maggi to easily dissolve into the food.
Note: If you wish to see the atoms in solids, you have to grind such solids into their finest particles.
Although the atoms in solids are tightly packed together, we still have got tiny spaces between them. Based on this fact, the more tightly packed solids are (that is; the smaller the spaces between its particle), the more dense (heavy) they are likely to be.
The density of solids will also depend on the type of element that they are made up of. For instance, Iron (Fe) and Sodium (Na) are solid elements, but Iron will be denser than sodium because its atoms has a larger mass than those of sodium.
The image below shows the closely arranged particles (atoms) in solids:
Structure of Solid Atoms
Note: There is no point compressing a solid because the particles are already tightly packed together. (To compress means to bring more closer the particles that makes up a substance).
Examples of crystalline solids include common salt, sugar and sulphur while rubber, plastics and glass are amorphous solids.
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Amazing facts in Chemistry
The only letters that failed to appear on the periodic table are letters:
Gold and copper are the only two non-silvery colored metals.
Copper is the only metal that is naturally antibacterial. This is why you would see some children utilize 'copper' water bottles in schools
Water actually freezes faster when it’s warm than when it’s cold
Most element in their pure state exists physically in different forms. For instance, pure carbon can exist as both diamond and graphite. This phenomenon is called allotropy.
If you pour a handful of salt into a full glass of water, the water level will go down rather than overflowing the glass.
Similarly, if you mix half liter of water and half litre of alcohol, the total volume of the liquid will be les than one litre
NOTABLE POINTS IN Chemistry
Below are some facts about gold
It is the only metal that has a gold (golden) color.
Gold is present inside the earth crust in all the seven continents.
Pure gold is soft and very stretchable (It can even be stretched into threads).
The Latin name of Gold is aurum which means 'shining dawn'. For this reason, its chemical symbol is 'Au'.
Gold is a very good conductor of electricity. This is why it’s sometimes used in making USB and audio cables.
Gold is non toxic and can be eaten with food. It is sometimes added to desserts in some expensive restaurants.
The term Gold originated from an ancient English word 'geolu' which means yellow.
24karat gold is the purest gold element.
An acid is a substance that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water (or when in the form of an aqueous solution).
Svante Arrhenius definition of Acid
An acid is a substance that donates a proton in a chemical reaction.
Brønsted Thomas Martin Lowry definition of Acid
An acid is a substance that accept an electron pair in a chemical reaction.
Gilbert Newton Lewis definition of Acid
Finally, Acids can also be also defined as substances that gives out hydronium ion (H3O+) when dissolved in water.
In summary, all acids will always contain the positive H+ (cation) and an anionic group in their formula. For instance, the acid HCl (Hydrogen Chloride) contains H+ as cation and Cl- as its anion.