Introduction to Biology

Olawunmi Omosanya - Wed, 23rd January, 2019 @ 02:32:52 AM

Topics in Biology

Skeleton and Type of Skeletal Materials Bones and Types of Bone Bones and Type of Bone part 2 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin Tropical Rainforest and Savanna with their characteristics Desert and Swamp Forest with their characteristics Autotrophic mode of Nutrition Amazing facts in Biology Characteristics of Protists Characteristics of Reptiles

Academic Questions in Biology

Chemical digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the _____.

  1. mouth
  2. oesophagus
  3. stomach
  4. small Intestine
  5. large Intestine

ANSWER is Mouth

The digestion of carbohydrate (cooked starch) begins in the mouth through an enzyme called salivary amylase (formerly called ptyalin) found in the saliva. This enzyme breaks down the starch present in carbohydrates into maltose. Maltose is a disaccharide. Please read on sugars and disaccharide here.

Note: With regards to digestion, chemical digestion is emphasized. We also have mechanical digestion which involves the grinding action of the teeth.


Meaning of Biology:

Let's start by splitting the word "Biology" into two parts. Bio (in Greek as bios) means life while Logy (in Greek as logos) means knowledge. Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life. No wonder people sometimes refer to this subject as Life Science.

In Biology, anything that has life is often referred to as an organism. Every part of the earth, from the lithosphere (solid part of the earth) to the hydrosphere (the part of earth made up of water) and the atmosphere consist of different types of living organism. Every living organism must possess some certain characteristics. All of these characteristics is essentially what makes them living. These characteristics are:

  • Movement
  • Respiration
  • Nutrition
  • Irritability
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Death
  • Adaptation
  • Competition. 

Arguably, some scientist are of the school of thought that a virus is not a living organism while others consider them to be living organisms. In reality, viruses are an unusual group of living organisms simply because they cannot reproduce outside a living cell (Think of a cell as the smallest unit of life). They are considered to be in the borderline of life. All living things are built from microscopic structures called cells. Viruses on the other hand do not have an ideal cell structure and thus cannot carry out life process on their own. One cell has the potential to sustain life and is the simplest structure capable of doing so.

The majority of living organism cannot be seen with the naked eyes.  A microscope is needed to see them, thus these kind of organisms are termed as microscopic organisms or micro-organisms. All microscopic organisms are single-celled or unicellular (Consider studying the course Microbiology if you are really interested in these microscopic organisms). Multi-celled organisms are called multi-cellular because they are composed of more than one cell. For instance, Humans are composed of trillions of cell.

Note: All living organism will need certain non-living factors (Abiotic factors) within their environment for survival. e.g air and water.

Amazing facts in Biology

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere

In the Biological organization of life, it is said that cells form tissues, tissues form organs and organs form systems. There are 12 systems in the human body; these are:

  1. Cardiovascular System
  2. Digestive System
  3. Endocrine System
  4. Immune System
  5. Integumentary System
  6. Lymphatic System
  7. Muscular System
  8. Nervous System
  9. Reproductive system
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Skeletal System
  12. Urinary or Renal System

Please read on the amazing facts in Biology here

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