Physics

Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 26th December, 2019 @ 5:25 PM

Topics in Physics

Derived Units: Similarities and differences with fundamental units Gravity: Facts on Gravity Relative Density of Substances and Specific Gravity Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction Types of Heat Transfer: Convection Types of Heat Transfer: Radiation Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Velocity and Acceleration Newton's Laws of Motion Importance of Gravity What is Density? Density of various substances Concepts of Force and Motion in Physics Motion and Speed in Physics Concept of Heat Transfer Concepts of Heat and Temperature What is gravity? Concept of gravity on the solar system Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium Fundamental Quantities and Units in Physics


Academic Questions in Physics

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is a fundamental quantity?

  • A. Luminous Intensity

  • B. Area

  • C. Volume

  • D. Velocity

  • E. Concentration

  • F. Acceleration

An object at rest will temporarily stay in its state of rest, and if the object is in uniform motion, it will temporarily move in a straight line, unless an external force acts upon it.

The above statement refers to Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning gravity?

  • A. The force of gravity is generally considered the strongest force among the four forces that govern the universe

  • B. Your weight changes as you travel away from the earth

  • C. If we dig the earth until we get into its center, we will have no weight as a result of lack of gravity

  • D. Gravity prevents us from falling off the constantly rotating earth

  • E. If a hammer and a feather are dropped simultaneously in a vacuum, they will both land at the exact same time as a result of gravity

  • F. Weight is always a function of gravity

Isaac Newton Hit by Apple - Len Academy

Sir Isaac Newton was hit by an apple when he pondered on force, motion and gravity.

  • A. True

  • B. False

The movement of gaseous particles through a tiny hole is termed _____.

  • A. Osmosis

  • B. Diffusion

  • C. Effusion

  • D. Infusion

  • E. Defusion

  • F. Gaslusion

A lighted bulb transfers heat through a process termed _____.

  • A. Conduction

  • B. Convection

  • C. Radiation

  • D. Oxidation

  • E. Reduction

  • F. Electrical Induction

A measurement of how much the velocity of an object changes with time is termed _____.

  • A. Displacement

  • B. Acceleration

  • C. Speed

  • D. Momentum

  • E. Velocity-Time graph

  • F. Average velocity

Which of the following differentiates velocity from speed?

  • A. Distance

  • B. Time

  • C. Momentum

  • D. Inertia

  • E. Direction

  • F. Distance and Time



Heat Transfer - Conduction:

Conduction can be defined as the transfer of heat energy from one point to another through a solid material termed conductor.

You can think of 'conductor' as a solid material through which electricity, heat and sound can flow through. In this regard, metals are generally good conductors.

Please read on the physical properties of metal here.


Let's explain heat transfer by conduction through this simple experiment which you may carry out at home.

The image below shows a simple experiment where heat is transferred via conduction through a thin metallic rod. This thin metallic rod acts as a conductor in this instance.

Heat Transfer by Conduction - Len Academy


From the above image, the 'hand' holding the thin metallic rod (conductor) will eventually feel its 'hotness'. This is so because heat (from the candle fire) had been transferred through the thin metallic rod.

Please read on the concept of heat and temperature here.


Heat transfer via conduction is an observable phenomenon during the process of cooking. In this case, the pot (which acts as a conductor here) transfers the heat of the fire through conduction into its contents. As a result, the contents of the pot becomes cooked (or boiled in the case of water).

Similarly, heat from the cooking pot is transferred via conduction to whomever touches it with their bare hands.


Below is another simple experiment on heat transfer via conduction. It can also be carried out at home.

  • Step 1: Boil three cups of water in a pot. When the water is very hot, put out the gas.

  • Step 2: Get another pot and fill it with three cups of cold water.

  • Step 3: Get an iron rod and make both ends of its edge contact both waters, that is: the hot and cold water respectively.

  • Please read on Heat Transfer via Convection here.


Observation: After we carry out the above procedure, an increase in the temperature of the iron rod will be observed as heat is transferred into the cold water through the iron rod. The iron rod in this instance acts as a conductor and it transfers heat through conduction.


The movement of heat energy in the above experiment will follow the path below:

Hot Water >> Iron Rod >> Cold Water

Please read on heat transfer via radiation here.


In the above experiment, it is the transfer of heat energy that brought about an increased temperature in the iron rod and consequently, the cold water; nothing more, nothing less.

Please read on solids and their characteristics here.


Below are some notable points concerning the experiment:

  1. Heat is the only factor that escaped from the warm water.
  2. Heat is the only factor that was gained by the iron rod.
  3. Heat is the only factor that was gained by the cold water.
  4. With regards to the iron rod, the heat gain will increase its particles vibrational kinetic energy.
    Please read on the concept of heat transfer to comprehend (vibrational and rotational) kinetic energy.
  5. With regards to the cold water, the heat gain will increase its particles rotational kinetic energy.

This heat transfer will continue until equilibrium is achieved; that is, the water inside both cups and the connecting iron rod eventually attain the same temperature.

Please read on the zeroth law of Thermodynamics here.

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Amazing facts in Physics

Marie Curie was the first person ever to win two Nobel prizes. She won her first Nobel price for physics in 1903, and the second for chemistry in 1911 for her work on radioactivity.

The hottest temperature ever recorded occurred in Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley, California, USA, at 56.7oor (134oF) on July 10, 1913

Elephant on cumulus cloud - Len Academy

A medium-sized cumulus cloud has a weight of about 80 adult elephants.

You can think of cumulus cloud as a detached, individual, cauliflower-shaped cloud often seen in fair weather conditions

Leaning Tower of Pisa - Len Academy

The reason the Leaning Tower of Pisa is tilted is the same reason it's still standing

One quarter of an apple is filled with air and that's why they float in water

Alfred Noble - Len Academy

The Nobel price was named after its founder, Alfred Noble. He is a Swedish, born on October 21, 1833; and was the inventor of dynamite. He was also a a famous scientist and a successful business man.

Glass Ball - Len Academy

Glass balls bounce higher than rubber balls

Every planet has its own unique gravitational force. For instance, Mars has a gravity of 3.711 m/s2 while earth’s gravitational force is 9.807m/s2.

When two metals are put together in space, they will stick together as if they are welded. This phenomenon is called cold welding

The fastest animal on land is cheetah. It can reach a maximum speed of about 113km per hour.


Notable points in Physics

The Standard International (SI) unit for density is kilogram per cubic metre (Kg/m3).

The table below shows various substances with their densities:

Substance

Density (Kg/m3)

Helium

0.179

Air (1atm and 20oC)

1.20

Bamboo Wood

400

 Ethanol

810

Methylated Spirit

800

Benzene

900

Paraffin Wax

900

Ice

920

Water (Fresh Water)

1000


Please read on density here

Force can be balanced or unbalanced.

When forces from different directions act on an object and consequently bring about the object's motion, then such forces are unbalanced.

Conversely, if theses forces bring about zero motion (static position or no movement) on the object of reference, then it's a balanced force.

In summary,

  • An apple hanging on a tree (without any form of movement) has a balanced force.

  • An apple falling from a tree has an unbalanced force.

If one covers a distance of 10,000 meters in 50 seconds and another covers the same distance in 5,000 seconds, we can conclude that the first person has a greater speed because he covered the same distance at a lesser time.

  • Speed is defined as distance travelled per unit of time. It can also be defined as the rate of change of distance.

Speed = distance/Time

Speed is a scalar quantity since it has only magnitude. Speed does not have a direction.

In physics, motion is defined as a change in the position of an object with reference to time.

Although we sometimes sit or stand in a fixed position, that doesn’t mean motion isn’t taking place. The fact that the earth is constantly rotating implies that we are indirectly moving along with it. We can thus say that motion can be relative to some frame of reference.

In the above paragraph, the earth (constantly rotating along its axis) is our frame of reference and everything present on earth is in motion (with regard to earth as a frame of reference).

Please read on the concepts of motion and speed here

Heat is a form of energy. It cannot be lost according to the first law of Thermodynamics; rather it will be transferred. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are stated below:

  • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed or converted from one form to another.

    1st law of thermodynamics


  • In the course of energy transfer, some energy is lost in the form of heat to the surroundings.

    2nd law of Thermodynamics

Please read on the concept of heat transfer here