# Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction

#### Academic Questions in PhysicsPlease check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force and will take place in the direction of that force. The above statement is attributed to _____. A. Albert Einstein B. Isaac Newton C. Galileo Galilei D. Neils Bohr E. Ernest Rutherford F. Marie Curie The Law of Inertia is also referred to as _____. A. 1st Law of Thermodynamics B. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics C. 3rd Law of Thermodynamics D. Newton's 1st Law of Motion E. Newton's 2nd Law of Motion F. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion The process whereby the velocity of an object increases and decreases over a period of time is best associated with the term _____. A. Speed B. Velocity C. Momentum D. Constant Velocity E. Acceleration F. Average Velocity The rate of motion is best referred to as _____. A. Speed B. Velocity C. Momentum D. Inertia E. Acceleration F. Constant Velocity Consider this expression below: A body X exerts a force FX on another body Y. In return, body Y exert a force FY back on body X. The forces FX and FY are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Putting the above expression into equation: FX = -FY Where FX is the action force FY is the reaction Force The above expression relates to _____. A. Theory of Force B. Force Postulate C. Einstein's proposal on Relativity D. Newton's 1st law of motion E. Newton's 2nd law of motion F. Newton's 3rd law of motion The tendency of a body to remain in a state of rest or in uniform motion is referred to as _____. A. Tension B. Uniform acceleration C. Constant acceleration D. Deceleration E. Inertia F. Velocity A change in the position of an object with reference to time is best described as _____. A. Momentum B. Displacement C. Velocity D. Acceleration E. Direction F. Motion The saying 'what goes up on earth must come down' can be best attributed to _____. A. Force B. Motion C. Mass D. Acceleration E. Average velocity F. Constant velocity ### Heat Transfer - Conduction:

Conduction can be defined as the transfer of heat energy from one point to another through a solid material called a conductor.

Think of a conductor as a solid material through which electricity, heat and sound can flow through.

Note: Metals are generally good conductors.

Let's explain heat transfer by conduction through this simple experiment which you may carry out at home.

The image below shows a simple experiment where heat is transferred via conduction through a thin metallic rod. (The thin metallic rod acts as a conductor in this instance). From the above image, the 'hand' holding the thin metallic rod (conductor) will eventually feel its 'hotness'. This is so because heat (from the candle fire) had been transferred through the thin metallic rod.

Heat transfer via conduction is an observable phenomenon during the process of cooking. In this case, the pot (which acts as a conductor here) transfers the heat of the fire through conduction into its contents. As a result, the contents of the pot becomes cooked (or boiled in the case of water).

Similarly, heat from the cooking pot is transferred via conduction to whomever touches it with their bare hands.

Below is another simple experiment on heat transfer via conduction. It can also be carried out at home.

• Step 1: Boil 3 cups of water in a pot. When the water is very hot, put out the gas.

• Step 2: Get another pot and fill it with 3 cups of cold water.

• Step 3: Get an iron rod and make both ends of its edge contact both waters (the hot water and the cold water respectively).

Observation: After we carry out the above procedure, an increase in the temperature of the iron rod will be observed as heat is eventually transferred into the cold water through the iron rod. The iron rod in this instance acts as a conductor and it transfers heat through conduction.

The movement of heat energy in the above experiment will follow the path below:

Hot Water >> Iron Rod >> Cold Water

Note: It is the transfer of heat energy that brought about an increased temperature in the iron rod and then, the cold water; nothing more, nothing less.

Below are some notable points concerning the experiment:

1. Heat is the only factor that escaped from the warm water.
2. Heat is the only factor that was gained by the iron rod.
3. Heat is the only factor that was gained by the cold water.
4. With regards to the iron rod, the heat gain will increase its particles vibrational kinetic energy.
Please read on the Concept of Heat Transfer to comprehend (Vibrational and Rotational) Kinetic Energy.
5. With regards to the cold water, the heat gain will increase its particles rotational kinetic energy.

This heat transfer will continue until equilibrium is achieved; (that is; the water inside both cups and the connecting iron rod eventually attain the same temperature). Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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