Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Drugs explained with their types and side effects
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?
B. Lawnmower Disease
D. Devil's Crunch
The vector for yellow fever is _____.
A. Aedes Mosquito
B. Female Anopheles Mosquito
E. Black Fly
F. Bacillus Anthracis
The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.
Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.
Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?
C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives
E. Anabolic Steroids
Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?
A. Drugs can be inhaled
B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream
C. Drugs can be eaten
D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups
E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue
F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
A material or substance is considered to be a waste when they are no longer useful or purposeful; and are thus discarded.
In some societies, we see waste materials all around. Apart from the fact that these waste are unpleasant to the eyes, they will also negatively affect national growth and development. In addition, inappropriately disposed wastes will promote the spread of diseases and (deaths) in areas where they are present.
Below are some of the causes of increasing wastes in various societies:
The larger the number of people in a society, the increase in the amount of waste produced.
Overpopulation will directly affect the increased turnout of waste materials from homes, market places and industries.
Meanwhile, understand that waste generated by the populace can be generally put into various types.
When funds allocated to waste management are siphoned, the society and its inhabitants will suffer. In this regard, corruption is a disease that eats up the society, either directly or indirectly. This is one of the many reasons for the presence of landfill waste in a society.
As a result of corruption, trucks meant to evacuate wastes from residential areas fail to show up because they are yet to be paid by the government for a previously done job.
The above instance results in the accumulation of wastes within these environments.
Education is always considered as the key to every successful society.
In some societies, market places and even residential environments are seen to be littered with various waste materials. If the residents were properly educated on the inappropriateness and dangers of their actions, the dumping of waste in these streets (and market places) will become reduced.
It is worthy of note to state that the power of education should never be underestimated in all facets of life. The education and creation of awareness to the citizens of a country will go a long way in reducing waste in the affected neighborhoods.
When a nation advances in technology, there will be a corresponding increase in the production of non-biodegradable waste like metal chips, rubbers and plastics.
Non-biodegradable wastes cannot be broken down in our lifetime; and hence will always persist in landfills as solid waste.
Some people would rather discard their household waste just anywhere because they are too lazy to go to an appropriate dump site, perhaps because of distance. This is a sad reality and I have seen people who exhibit this poor behavior.
Certain residents would rather litter the environment with various kinds of waste because they intend to avoid the payment of waste disposal fee (at waste disposal and management sites).
The presence of a few recycling industries in a society will result in the accumulation of excess waste.
Interestingly, when waste materials are properly recycled, new products will become cheaper since the cost of production becomes reduced from these recycled wastes. As a result, waste materials become raw materials for various production industries.
It is the function of production industries to pick up necessary waste materials and recycle them into new products through the processes of production.
When the people living in a society constantly dump waste materials anywhere and without any form of fine or punishment, the act of improper waste disposal will be encouraged.
Personally, I feel bad each time I see people dump waste materials like sachets, plastics, nylons and banana peels on the streets and roadsides. They consciously (or unconsciously) dump these wastes on the streets and major roads without any thought on the impending harmful effect of such waste.
Using the city of Lagos as an instance, a government agency named 'Kick Against Indiscipline (KAI)' was previously establish to penalize and arrest offenders (that dispose waste inappropriately alongside other crimes) within the Lagos metropolis. During this period, I discovered that city of Lagos became cleaner because most people adhered to the agency's rule while the culprits were indeed penalized.
Presently, it appears that KAI functions no longer in Lagos state. The has made some people go back to this unhealthy act.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
According to scientific research, if the first tear drop comes from the right eye, it’s tears of joy. If it comes from the left eye, then it is as a result of pain
Dentistry is the oldest profession in the world. This is considered true because a research conducted by the University of Bologna, Italy on a 14,000-year-old skull found that one rotten tooth in the jaw had been deliberately scoured and scraped with a dental tool
Scientific research has it that the human nose can distinguish more than a trillion different odors
Tigers have striped fur. So also is their skin
The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Notable points in Basic Science
We have six classes of food. These are:
Fats and Oils
In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.
Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.
As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:
The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.
Matter is composed of particles which can be:
Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).
Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).
Completely separated (as seen in gases).
The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.
An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average