Topics in Basic ScienceImportance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
A material or substance is considered to be a waste when they are no longer useful or purposeful; and are thus discarded.
In some societies, we see waste materials all around. Apart from the fact that these waste are unpleasant to the eyes, they will also negatively affect national growth and development. In addition, inappropriately disposed wastes will promote the spread of diseases and (deaths) in areas where they are present.
Below are some of the causes of increasing wastes in various societies:
The larger the number of people in a society, the increase in the amount of waste produced.
Overpopulation will directly affect the increased turnout of waste materials from homes, market places and industries.
Meanwhile, understand that waste generated by the populace can be generally put into various types.
When funds allocated to waste management are siphoned, the society and its inhabitants will suffer. In this regard, corruption is a disease that eats up the society, either directly or indirectly. This is one of the many reasons for the presence of landfill waste in a society.
As a result of corruption, trucks meant to evacuate wastes from residential areas fail to show up because they are yet to be paid by the government for a previously done job.
The above instance results in the accumulation of wastes within these environments.
Education is always considered as the key to every successful society.
In some societies, market places and even residential environments are seen to be littered with various waste materials. If the residents were properly educated on the inappropriateness and dangers of their actions, the dumping of waste in these streets (and market places) will become reduced.
It is worthy of note to state that the power of education should never be underestimated in all facets of life. The education and creation of awareness to the citizens of a country will go a long way in reducing waste in the affected neighborhoods.
When a nation advances in technology, there will be a corresponding increase in the production of non-biodegradable waste like metal chips, rubbers and plastics.
Non-biodegradable wastes cannot be broken down in our lifetime; and hence will always persist in landfills as solid waste.
Some people would rather discard their household waste just anywhere because they are too lazy to go to an appropriate dump site, perhaps because of distance. This is a sad reality and I have seen people who exhibit this poor behavior.
Certain residents would rather litter the environment with various kinds of waste because they intend to avoid the payment of waste disposal fee (at waste disposal and management sites).
The presence of a few recycling industries in a society will result in the accumulation of excess waste.
Interestingly, when waste materials are properly recycled, new products will become cheaper since the cost of production becomes reduced from these recycled wastes. As a result, waste materials become raw materials for various production industries.
It is the function of production industries to pick up necessary waste materials and recycle them into new products through the processes of production.
When the people living in a society constantly dump waste materials anywhere and without any form of fine or punishment, the act of improper waste disposal will be encouraged.
Personally, I feel bad each time I see people dump waste materials like sachets, plastics, nylons and banana peels on the streets and roadsides. They consciously (or unconsciously) dump these wastes on the streets and major roads without any thought on the impending harmful effect of such waste.
Using the city of Lagos as an instance, a government agency named 'Kick Against Indiscipline (KAI)' was previously establish to penalize and arrest offenders (that dispose waste inappropriately alongside other crimes) within the Lagos metropolis. During this period, I discovered that city of Lagos became cleaner because most people adhered to the agency's rule while the culprits were indeed penalized.
Presently, it appears that KAI functions no longer in Lagos state. The has made some people go back to this unhealthy act.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
Cats are unable to taste sweet things
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.
We have four types of polysaccharides namely:
Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.
Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.
Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.
Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.
Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.