Basic Science

Effects of improper waste management

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 28th December, 2019 @ 7:18: AM

Topics in Basic Science

Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs What is immunization? How immunization works and the processes involved Food: What is food?

Academic Questions in Basic Science

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Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.

  • A. Galactose

  • B. Fructose

  • C. Sucrose

  • D. AMP

  • E. ADP

  • F. ATP

Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?

  • A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only

  • B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates

  • C. All carbohydrates are sugars

  • D. Fructose is a carbohydrate

  • E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate

  • F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods

Which of the following is a class of food?

  • A. Water

  • B. Fibre

  • C. Roughages

  • D. Latex

  • E. Tanins

  • F. Wax

Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.

  • A. Human beings

  • B. Babbons

  • C. Chameleons

  • D. Toads

  • E. Millipedes

  • F. Birds

_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.

  • A. Pedalism

  • B. Duo Pedalism

  • C. Double Pedalism

  • D. Dual Pedalism

  • E. Bipedalism

  • F. Copedalism

What is waste management?

Waste management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Wastes are generated from homes, factories, market places, hospitals, schools, industries and many other places. The growth and development of nations where these wastes are prevalent will be adversely affected.

Please read on the causes of wastes in a society here.

Effects of improper waste management

Below are some of the effects of improper waste management:

1. Atmospheric pollution

The burning of waste materials like plastics, papers and rubber will contaminate the atmosphere with gases like carbon(II)oxide, carbon(IV)oxide and sulphur(IV)oxide.

Atmospheric pollution via the release of toxic gases will also result from biodegradable waste. This is true because biodegradable wastes are eventually broken down or decomposed by bacteria and fungi respectively.

Please read on the types of wastes here.

Also, waste may contain toxic chemicals like dioxin. Dioxin is a waste product generated from the rearing of broilers.

Understand that the pollution of the atmosphere as a result of these wastes will negatively affect humans, plants, wildlife and other living organisms.

Please read more on air pollution, it's effects and solutions here.


2. Death of aquatic organisms

The pollution of water bodies by solid and liquid waste will result in the suffocation and death of aquatic organisms.

As an instance, oil spillage has been a major problem in the riverine areas (south-south region) of Nigeria. Oil spillage is prevalent here since crude oil (or petroleum) is one of the natural resources present in the south-south states of Nigeria.

You can read on the fractional distillation of petroleum here.


3. Climate change and green house effect

The decomposition of biodegradable waste will result into the release of green house gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere.

In addition, human activities like combustion and burning are constantly releasing more greenhouse gases, especially carbon(IV)oxide into the atmosphere.

Please read more on greenhouse gases (through the functions of the atmosphere) here.

Excessive greenhouse gases have an adverse effect on weather conditions over a long period of time. This is so because these gases are gradually bringing about an increase in the temperature of the earth, giving rise to global warming.


4. Contamination of the soil

Waste materials such as plastic containers, ink, oil and petroleum products will have damaging effects on the soil.

The aformentioned wastes will adversely affect the growth of plants and other organisms living in and on the soil. As a result, the soil becomes less fertile and agricutural land and its activities becomes negativity affected.

Please read on agricultural land and its uses here.


5. Reduced atmospheric oxygen and increased atmospheric carbon(IV)oxide

With regards to the carbon cycle, plants are the only organisms that take away carbon(IV)oxide from the atmosphere. They do this through a process termed photosynthesis.

Interestingly, plants are also the only organisms that fixes oxygen back into the atmosphere. They do this through photosynthesis.

Please read more on autotrophic nutrition (photosynthesis) here.

Note: Without atmospheric oxygen (generated by plants), humans and animals will cease to exist.

Please read on the characteristics of living organisms here.


6. Increase in the amount of carcinogens

Carcinogens are defined as substances that can cause cancer. Examples are radioactive wastes.

Radioactive wastes can be potentially damaging to humans when inhaled. They increase the formation of cancerous cells in human systems. Some may even cause leukemia, a form of blood cancer.

You can read on the classification bones (to understand how blood cells are produced).


7. Flooding and blockage of drainages

When excess waste materials find their way into gutters and pipes, blockage of such gutters and pipes will result. Blocked gutters and drainages bring about flooding in the affected areas.

Please read on soil erosion here.

Also, stagnant waters will act as breeding sites for mosquitoes and other vectors of diseases.

Please read on vectors of diseases here.


8. Diseases

Wastes materials found in neighborhoods serve as homes to pest and pathogens. These pathogens will in turn cause diseases in the long run.

Please read on micro organisms causing food, air and water borne diseases here.

As an instance, lasa fever is a disease caused by pathogens carried by rodents dwelling in dirty environments.

Other diseases caused as a result of improper waste management include cholera, malaria, fever, dysentery, diarrhea and tetanus.

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Amazing facts in Basic Science

Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus

All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk

The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:

Chin - Len Academy

Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin

Cranberries - Len Academy

Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water

Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables

Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.

Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell

Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack

The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6

Ice cubes - Len Academy

Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear

Cats are unable to taste sweet things


Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:

Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:

  • Biodegradable waste

  • Non-Biodegradable waste

  • Refuse

  • Sewage

  • Recyclable waste

  • Electronic waste

  • Green waste

  • Biomedical waste

  • Metabolic waste

  • Radioactive waste

  • Chemical waste

  • Animal product waste

Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here

The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.

African Star Apple, Cherry, Agbalumo, Udara - Len Academy

Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:

  • It contains high amount of vitamin C

  • It contains a high amount of calcium

  • It contains high amount of potassium

  • It is a powerful antioxidant

  • It aids in weight reduction

  • It contains a high amount of iron

  • Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal

  • It aids digestion and prevents vomiting

Please read more on the african star apple here

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.

Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.

Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.

The breast milk contains the disaccharide -> lactose.

Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.

In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.

Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

  • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose

Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.

We have four types of polysaccharides namely:

  1. Starch

  2. Glycogen

  3. Chitin

  4. Cellulose

Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.

Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.

Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.

Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.

Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon). For this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.

Please read more on carbohydrates here