Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
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To explain the concept of negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis, take a moment to imagine yourself walking down the road on a sunny day. Through this action, you are likely to sweat.
From the above scenerio, your act of sweating is good for you because this is how the homeostatic process regulates (attempts to cool) your body from the sun's hot rays.
Note: A good understanding on the concept of Homeostasis will aid you to better comprehend the negative feedback mechanism.
The diagram below shows the process of homeostasis and its eventual negative feedback mechanism on a sunny day.
Understand that sweating helps lower your body temperature and this is a good thing on a sunny day. This is true because when an increased bodily temperature isn't checked, controlled or regulated, it becomes dangerous to the health.
Still using the above instance, you will notice that the amounts of urine produced by your kidneys will become lesser on this sunny day. This is happening because you are already losing water and salt (through sweating), thus less urine is produced in an attempt to make up for your water loss, (that is; an attempt to conserve water).
Again, you are likely to drink a lot of water on this sunny day due to a higher tendency of being thirsty. This thirstiness is brought about by the hypothalamus (through stimulations from the pituitary gland which is also referred to as the master endocrine gland). The goal of being thirsty is to enable you drink more water, thus compensating for the water loss which resulted from sweating.
All of these homeostatic processes in the above paragraphs will continue on and on. If not checked, it might become detrimental to the your health.
From our above instance (walking down the road on a sunny day), you can't continue to sweat forever because that will not be good for you.
Now, what seems to be a solution at the beginning of our example (sweating) can now potentially cause excessive water loss; and this is where the negative feedback mechanism comes into play. To this end, the kidneys produces less urine while the hypothalamus stimulates thirst in an attempt to compensate for water loss through sweating.
Below is an explanation on the concept of a negative feedback mechanism through an homeostatic process occuring in a cold day:
On a cold day, the body's metabolic rate reduces and as a result, we barely sweat. Also, the body's temperature decreases. To this end, the various homeostatic organs will carry out the following processes (homeostatic functions) in an attempt to increase the body's temperature and metabolic rate, thus ultimately resulting in the elimination of water from the body. These homeostatic processes will include:
The above homeostatic processes is vital for survival on a cold day but the point is: "Such processes must eventually stop; else the individual will die from the continuous loss of water". It is at this point that the negative feedback mechanism comes to the rescue.
Note: It is important to state that the stimuli that initiated the the homeostatic process will at some point cease to exist. For instance, the individual may put on the house heater in order to reverse the stimuli, (that is, the cold environment).
The Negative Feedback Mechanism is therefore a result of coordinations from the nervous and endocrine systems in an attempt to inhibit, stop or reverse the homeostatic responses to a stimuli.
Negative feedback mechanism therefore allows the increasing product of a process or pathway to be controlled, decreased or put into check. Generally, it causes a decrease in the function of a homeostatic process.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere