Biology

Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 06th February, 2020 @ 2:31 AM

Topics in Biology

Tropical savanna explained with its characteristics Ecological pyramid explained with its importance and limitations Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata and its features Food web explained with examples Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Male accessory sex organs: Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands Scrotum and its contents: Testicles Brain: Introduction to the human brain Forebrain: Lobes of the cerebrum and their functions Cerebellum: Parts and functions of the cerebellum Midbrain: Division and functions of the midbrain Negative feedback mechanism in homeostasis Arterial disorders explained with their causes Types of desert and their characteristics Characteristics of tropical rainforest Swamp forest: What are swamp forests? Characteristics of swamp forests Savanna biome: Concept of the savanna


Academic Questions in Biology

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium


Forebrain:

The forebrain, also called the prosencephalon is the largest part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus.

The cerebrum is the largest part of the forebrain (and the entire brain itself). It occupies the largest portion of the cranium and is divided into two halves termed cerebral hemispheres. They are appropriately named the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Both hemispheres are joined by a bundle of fibres called corpus callosum.

Please read on the cranium and all 206 bones comprising the human skeleton here.


The image below shows both cerebral hemispheres and the corpus callosum.

Human Brain Gyri and Sulci - Len Academy


Note: A function of the corpus callosum is to transmit nervous information between both cerebral hemispheres.


Each cerebral hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body; and are composed of four distinct lobes. The image below shows the 4 lobes of the cerebrum alongside a summary of their functions.

Lobes of the Cerebrum - Len Academy

The cerebral lobes are:

  1. Frontal lobe

  2. Parietal lobe

  3. Temporal lobe

  4. Occipital lobe

  5. Please read on the cerebellum and its lobes here.


Functions of the frontal lobe

  1. It is an area of the brain for making judgement.
  2. It controls our emotions.
  3. The Broca's Area of the frontal lobe aid in writing and speaking.
  4. It is responsible for planning, problem solving, concentration, self awareness and intelligence.
    Please read on the uniqueness of man here.
  5. The frontal lobe of the brain controls our personality.
    Please read on the leadership qualities of Joseph that has transformed lives here.
  6. It plays a part in speech and body movement.
    Please read on the functions of the human skeleton here.

Functions of the parietal lobe

  1. It aids in the interpretation of language.
  2. It is responsible for the interpretation of visual and audio signals as received from the sense organs (eyes and ears).
  3. It enables us to sense external stimuli like touch, pressure, pain and temperature.
    Please read on the basic characteristics of life here.

Functions of the temporal lobe

  1. The Wernicke's Area of the temporal lobe helps us to understand language.
  2. It aids hearing and listening.
    You can read on cooperation and factors that promotes it here.
  3. The hippocampus of the temporal lobe is a center of memory and organization.
    You can Attempt Len Academy questions on various subjects here.
  4. The amygdala present in the temporal lobe is a center for various moods like anxiety, depression and emotions.


Present in the temporal lobe of the brain are the hippocampus, amygdala, epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, mammillary body and parahippocampal gyri. Together, these are referred to as the limbic system, and they are crucial for the processing functions of the memory.


The image below shows the limbic system of the temporal lobe.

Limbic System - Len Academy


The thalamus is a small structure found between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is a heterogeneous assembly of organized nuclei composed mainly of gray matter.

You can read on the midbrain here.

  • The main function of the thalamus is to receive, process and transmit sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus also aid in the regulation of mood functions like, arousal, consciousness, sleep and alertness.
  • Please read on the male reproductive system here.


The hypothalamus is a portion of the forebrain made up small group of nuclei with various functions.

The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. This is shown in the diagram below.

Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland - Len Academy


The main function of the hypothalamus is to create a link between the nervous system and endocrine system through the pituitary gland. For this reason, it is crucial in homeostatic roles via the release of hormones and temperature regulation.

Please read more on homeostasis here.


Function of the occipital lobe

  1. It assists in the interpretation of light and color. In short, the occipital lobe interprets everything seen by the eyes.
  2. The occipital lobe also aid in motion perception.
    You can read on force and motion here.

Functional summary of the cerebrum

From the explanations so far on the cerebral hemispheres, below is a functional summary of the cerebrum:

  1. Initiation and coordination of voluntary bodily activities. These will include a fine control of the hands and feet movements during sewing.

  2. It performs higher functions like vision and hearing.

  3. It controls speech and learning.

  4. It acts as a center of emotion.

  5. It controls reasoning and remembering.

  6. It plays a part in mood control.

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Amazing facts in Biology

Cockroach is the fastest land animal on six legs

Laughing ape - Len Academy

Like humans, all apes laugh when tickled

Ostrich eye and brain - Len Academy

An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain

The upper front teeth are missing in giraffes. Meanwhile, like an adult human, a fully grown giraffe has 32 teeth but most are positioned at the back of their mouth

Slugs have four noses

Most insects hatch from egg but aphids give birth to their young alive

Bats aren't birds, rather, they are mammals. Infact, they are the second largest order of mammals after rodents. We have over 1,400 species of bat. Globally, they make up about 20% of all classified mammal species

Panda eating bamboo - Len Academy

99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. They may eat fish or other small animals occasionally

When attacked by insects, lima beans plant will often command parasitic wasps to their defence.

When the leaves of the lima bean's leaves are eaten by insects, the plant gives off a substance that signals parasitic wasps to swam in, destroying its enemies (the leaf-eating insects) in the process

Frogs drink water through their skin


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered living, it must possess all the basic characteristics of life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the basic characteristics of life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (Treetops)

You can read on food chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.

  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined as the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism). All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym -> MR. NIGER DAC.

You can read on the introduction to biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

It is noteworthy to state that plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere