Biology

Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain

len Alfred Ajibola - Thu, 06th February, 2020 @ 14:32

Topics in Biology

Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C​​​​​​2​​​​C5OH
  • C. H2​​​​​O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.

  • A. heterotrophs
  • B. autotrophs
  • C. homotrophs
  • D. producers
  • E. photosynthetic
  • F. chemosynthetic

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The Brain:

The Brain is one part of the Central Nervous System or CNS; (the other part being the spinal cord). It is located in a part of the skull called the cranium.

Please read on the 206 bones in the Human Body here.

The brain is regarded as the seat of control over every part of the body and perhaps; that's probably why it is located at the top of the human body. As the coordinator of all bodily activities (both voluntary, e.g walking and involuntary, e.g swallowing), the brain receives nervous impulses from every part of the body; from the hair on our body to the tip of our nails. In short, without the brain's majestic control, the entire part of the body will be in chaos.

Please read on Homeostasis here.

Note: An average human brain comprises of about 100 billion brain cells called neurones (or nerve cells).

Other cells are also present around the neurones. These include astrocytes, microglia and glia cells. Together, they provide support, protection and cleansing to the neurones or brain cells.

  • If a brain cell dies, the chances of regeneration are quite low and this would grive rise to Alzheimer's disease which is often seen in aged people.

Alzheimer's disease is usually associated with memory loss and confusion as its main symptoms.

Please read more on the Cerebrum and its Functions here.

The human brain weighs about 1.5kg and makes up approximately 2% of the body weight. It receives around 20% of the body's glucose and oxygen.

Human brains are shaped like a wrinkled walnut. They are highly folded into gyri and grooved into sulci. The greater the number of these folds (gyri) and grooves (sulci), the more intelligent a person would be.

Please read on the Uniqueness of Man here.

The image below shows the gyri and sulci of the human brain:
Human Brain Gyri and Sulci - Len Academy

The largest portion of the brain (called the cerebrum) is divided into two halves. Both halves, commonly referred to as the cerebral hemispheres are separated by a band of neuronal fiber called the corpus callosum.

Note: The corpus callosum transmits sensory and motor information between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

A part of the brain called the cerebellum is also divided into two hemispheres. These are the right and left cerebellar hemispheres respectively.

Please read on the Cerebellum and its Functions here.

It is always considered that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body while the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. This is termed lateralization of the brain.

The image below shows the Left and Right Hemispheres and the Lateralization of the Brain:
Right and Left Hemisheres of the Brain with Functions - Len Academy


Note: Certain functions are associated with either the left or right hemisphere of the brain. For instance, musical tendencies are usually related to the right hemisphere and language is common to the left.

A fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid (or CSF) surrounds and fills in all the gaps around the brain (and the spinal cord). It aid in the cushioning and protection of the brain cells. As a result, the brain cells floats within the cerebrospinal fluid and are not directly in contact with the cranium.

The image below show the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord:
Cerebrospinal fluid - Len Academy

You can read on the Functions of the Human Skeleton here.

 

Parts or Divisions of the Brain

Below is an image that shows the three main parts or regions or divisions of the brain.:
Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindrain - Len Academy

Generally, the human brain is divided into three main parts These are:

  1. Forebrain
  2. Midbrain
    Please read on the Midbrain here.
  3. Hindbrain

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len

Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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Amazing facts in Biology

Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female

All babies are born with blue eyes

Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains

All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain

A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁

An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here


NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the Basic Characteristics of Life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere