Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
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The Brain is one part of the Central Nervous System or CNS; (the other part being the spinal cord). It is located in a part of the skull called the cranium.
The brain is regarded as the seat of control over every part of the body and perhaps; that's probably why it is located at the top of the human body. As the coordinator of all bodily activities (both voluntary, e.g walking and involuntary, e.g swallowing), the brain receives nervous impulses from every part of the body; from the hair on our body to the tip of our nails. In short, without the brain's majestic control, the entire part of the body will be in chaos.
Note: An average human brain comprises of about 100 billion brain cells called neurones (or nerve cells).
Other cells are also present around the neurones. These include astrocytes, microglia and glia cells. Together, they provide support, protection and cleansing to the neurones or brain cells.
Alzheimer's disease is usually associated with memory loss and confusion as its main symptoms.
The human brain weighs about 1.5kg and makes up approximately 2% of the body weight. It receives around 20% of the body's glucose and oxygen.
Human brains are shaped like a wrinkled walnut. They are highly folded into gyri and grooved into sulci. The greater the number of these folds (gyri) and grooves (sulci), the more intelligent a person would be.
The image below shows the gyri and sulci of the human brain:
The largest portion of the brain (called the cerebrum) is divided into two halves. Both halves, commonly referred to as the cerebral hemispheres are separated by a band of neuronal fiber called the corpus callosum.
Note: The corpus callosum transmits sensory and motor information between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
A part of the brain called the cerebellum is also divided into two hemispheres. These are the right and left cerebellar hemispheres respectively.
It is always considered that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body while the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. This is termed lateralization of the brain.
The image below shows the Left and Right Hemispheres and the Lateralization of the Brain:
Note: Certain functions are associated with either the left or right hemisphere of the brain. For instance, musical tendencies are usually related to the right hemisphere and language is common to the left.
A fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid (or CSF) surrounds and fills in all the gaps around the brain (and the spinal cord). It aid in the cushioning and protection of the brain cells. As a result, the brain cells floats within the cerebrospinal fluid and are not directly in contact with the cranium.
The image below show the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord:
Below is an image that shows the three main parts or regions or divisions of the brain.:
Generally, the human brain is divided into three main parts These are:
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere