Topics in Agricultural ScienceTypes of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work, Agricultural Science, SS1, Third Term
Academic Questions in Agricultural Science
All plants are crops.
In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?
A. They are non-essential nutrients
B. They are required by plants in minute quantities
C. Iron is a micronutrient
D. Chlorine is a micronutrient
E. Copper is a micronutrient
F. Boron is a micronutrient
_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.
A. Integrated Pest Management
B. Integral Pest Management
C. International Pest Management
D. Inclusive Pest Management
E. Imbibed Pest Management
F. Inclusion Pest Management
Cordage is made from _____ crop.
F. Vegetables and Spice
_____ is defined as the solid and arable part of the earth where agricultural activities are be carried out.
C. Agricultural land
E. Open land
F. Planting and grazing land
Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed bearing plants under the division spermatophyta?
Which of the following is false concerning gymnosperms?
A. Cones are present
B. Sepals are present
C. Petals are absent
D. Only seeds are produced
E. Sporophyll form the cones
F. In seed formation, the ovules aren't present in the ovary
The prevention of soil erosion may also be referred to a process termed 'conservation of soil'.
Recall that soil erosion is defined as a process that leads to the removal of topsoil through agents like water, wind, animals and human beings. The causes of soil erosion can be both natural and artificial.
Please read on an nntroduction to soil erosion here.
Soil conservation (or prevention of soil erosion) can be achieved via the following ways:
Education of farmers on soil erosion and other agricultural practices.
It is important to state that education is vital towards the development of every sector in a society. Without education, a farmer ends up lacking knowledge on soil erosion, let alone the means of preventing it.
Please read on illiteracy and its causes here.
Practice of terrace farming.
Terrace farming can be implemented in hilly areas by cutting or creating steps on the slope of a hill. It is typically practiced on sloped or mountainous farmlands, thus making farming possible on such lands. This is shown in the image below:
You can read on problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.
The practice of terrace farming requires the use of steps typically referred to as terraces on a sloped, hilly or mountainous land. Whenever it rains, soil nutrients and plants are not swept along the slope; rather they flow to the next terrace.
Note: Each terrace has an outlet through which water is channeled out.
Avoidance of overgrazing on farmlands.
Overgrazing is a process whereby herbivorous animals excessively feed on grasses, crops and other kind of plants to an extent that exposes the topsoil.
Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.
The end result of overgrazing is an exposure of the topsoil to agents of erosion like water and wind.
The planting of trees should be encouraged. This process (of planting trees) is referred to as afforestation; and such trees act as windbreaks.
You can check out various agricutural terms and meanings here.
Land tillage should be carefully done. It should also be reduced to its barest minimum.
Tillage refers to the agricultural preparation of farmland (to be planted upon) by various mechanical techniques like, digging, mixing, stirring and overturning via the use of instruments like shovels, axe, rake, hoe and so on.
Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.
Practice of strip cropping.
Strip cropping refers to a farming method whereby grasses or other small crops are planted on farmlands in a long partitioned rows; typically at right angles to the direction of the prevailing wind, or in line with the natural contours of the farmland so as to prevent wind and water erosion.
Please read on the causes of soil erosion here.
In strip cropping, grass strips are planted between ploughed lands. This is shown below:
Implemention crop rotation on farmlands.
Crop rotation is a farming system whereby different crops are grown on the same piece of land at different intervals over a long period of time.
You can read on agricultural pest and crops attacked here.
Note: The continuous planting of one type of crop (termed mono cropping) on a piece of farmland will result in the loss of soil nutrients on such farmlands. This is true because soil whose nutrients are lost cannot support the growth of plants. As a result, the soil becomes exposed to water and wind erosion.
Planting of cover crops on bare soils. This is shown below:
Cover crop refers to grasses, legumes or small green plants that are grown prior to a planting season in order to protect the soil (for the new planting season).
Please read on asexual propagation in plants here.
Farmers are encouraged to plant cover crops prior to a planting season. This is important because cover crops aid in maintaining soil structure by protecting the topsoil, thus preventing an exposure of the topsoil from the agents of erosion.
Understand that cover crops act as shelterbelts when planted on exposed soils.
Use of runoff pipes and specialized chutes to direct excess water away from farmlands.
Building of dams to prevent flood.
Creation of embankments along the banks of the river in order to protect agricultural lands from being flooded.
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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science
Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
Peanuts are legumes and not nuts
Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments
Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them
Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs
A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.
People just prefer to call them herd
NOTABLE POINTS IN Agricultural Science
Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:
Drug and Medicinal crops
Root and Tubers
All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:
Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.
Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.
Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).
Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.
Below are some of the problems of agriculture in Nigeria:
Lack of mechanized farming
Poor government policies
High cost of fertilizers
Lack of education
Lack of storage facilities
Bad road network
Poor research facilities
Please read a detailed explanation on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.
Secateurs are agricultural tools.
Secateurs are also referred to as pruning shears or hand pruners.
It looks like a pair of scissors.
It’s used for trimming flowers and leaves.
It is also used for pruning the branches of shrubs.
An example of an agricultural tool is the hoe. It is shown below:
We have a variety of hoes.
They are generally used for tilling the soil.
They are used for making trenches in farmlands.
A hoe is utilized in harvesting crops like yam and cocoyam
They are also used for cutting weeds on farmlands.