Agricultural Science

Ways to prevent soil erosion

len Alfred Ajibola - Fri, 21st February, 2020 @ 4:48 PM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Soil formation in agricuture Economic empowerment through agricuture Management as a factor of production in agriculture Labor as a factor of production in agriculture Finance as a factor of production in agriculture Water as a factor of production in agriculture Land as a factor of production in agriculture Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for JSS1, 2nd term Len Academy Agricultural Science midterm questions for jss2, 2nd term Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming


Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management



Prevention of Soil Erosion:

The prevention of soil erosion may also be referred to a process termed 'conservation of soil'.

Recall that soil erosion is defined as a process that leads to the removal of topsoil through agents like water, wind, animals and human beings. The causes of soil erosion can be both natural and artificial.

Please read on the introduction to soil erosion here.


Soil conservation (or prevention of soil erosion) can be achieved via the following ways:


  1. Education of farmers on soil erosion and other agricultural practices.

    It is important to state that education is vital towards the development of every sector in a society. Without education, a farmer ends up lacking knowledge on soil erosion, let alone the means of preventing it.
    Please read on illiteracy and its causes here.


  2. Practice of terrace farming.

    Terrace farming can be implemented in hilly areas by cutting or creating steps on the slope of a hill. It is typically practiced on sloped or mountainous farmlands, thus making farming possible on such lands. This is shown in the image below:

    Terrace Farming - Len Academy

    You can read on problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.

    The practice of terrace farming requires the use of steps typically referred to as terraces on a sloped, hilly or mountainous land. Whenever it rains, soil nutrients and plants are not swept along the slope; rather they flow to the next terrace.

    Note: Each terrace has an outlet through which water is channeled out.


  3. Avoidance of overgrazing on farmlands.

    Overgrazing is a process whereby herbivorous animals excessively feed on grasses, crops and other kind of plants to an extent that exposes the topsoil.
    Please read on the differences between plants and crops here.

    The end result of overgrazing is an exposure of the topsoil to agents of erosion like water and wind.


  4. The planting of trees should be encouraged. This process (of planting trees) is referred to as afforestation; and such trees act as windbreaks.
    You can check out various agricutural terms and meanings here.


  5. Land tillage should be carefully done. It should also be reduced to its barest minimum.

    Tillage refers to the agricultural preparation of farmland (to be planted upon) by various mechanical techniques like, digging, mixing, stirring and overturning via the use of instruments like shovels, axe, rake, hoe and so on.
    Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.


  6. Practice of strip cropping.

    Strip cropping refers to a farming method whereby grasses or other small crops are planted on farmlands in a long partitioned rows; typically at right angles to the direction of the prevailing wind, or in line with the natural contours of the farmland so as to prevent wind and water erosion.
    Please read on the causes of soil erosion here.

    In strip cropping, grass strips are planted between ploughed lands. This is shown below:

    Strip Cropping - Len Academy

    Please read on agricultural land and its uses here.


  7. Implemention crop rotation on farmlands.

    Crop rotation is a farming system whereby different crops are grown on the same piece of land at different intervals over a long period of time.
    You can read on agricultural pest and crops attacked here.

    Note: The continuous planting of one type of crop (termed mono cropping) on a piece of farmland will result in the loss of soil nutrients on such farmlands. This is true because soil whose nutrients are lost cannot support the growth of plants. As a result, the soil becomes exposed to water and wind erosion.


  8. Planting of cover crops on bare soils. This is shown below:

    Cover Crop - Len Academy

    Cover crop refers to grasses, legumes or small green plants that are grown prior to a planting season in order to protect the soil (for the new planting season).

    Please read on asexual propagation in plants here.

    Farmers are encouraged to plant cover crops prior to a planting season. This is important because cover crops aid in maintaining soil structure by protecting the topsoil, thus preventing an exposure of the topsoil from the agents of erosion.

    Understand that cover crops act as shelterbelts when planted on exposed soils.


  9. Use of runoff pipes and specialized chutes to direct excess water away from farmlands.


  10. Building of dams to prevent flood.


  11. Creation of embankments along the banks of the river in order to protect agricultural lands from being flooded.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd


Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy

 

Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here