Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents

len Alfred Ajibola - Tue, 25th February, 2020 @ 12:18

Topics in Biology

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Academic Questions in Biology

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Food Pyramid - Len Academy

The above diagram shows a _____.

  • A. Food Chain

  • B. Food Web

  • C. Food Flow

  • D. Food Energy

  • E. Food Pyramid

  • F. Food Hierarchy

Anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism is termed _____.

  • A. Response

  • B. Irritability

  • C. Adaptation

  • D. Competition

  • E. Stimulus

  • F. Action potential

Which of the following molecule is utilized directly as energy in the human body?

  • A. Glucose

  • B. Carbohydrate

  • C. Starch

  • D. Adenosine Mono Phosphate

  • E. Adenosine Di Phosphate 

  • F. Adenosine Tri Phosphate

Which of the following is not a basic characteristics of life?

  • A. Locomotion

  • B. Competition

  • C. Adaptation

  • D. Irritability

  • E. Nutrition

  • F. Death

The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.

  • A. Saprophytes

  • B. Parasites

  • C. Commensals

  • D. Decomposers

  • E. Tertiary consumers

  • F. Quatenary consumers

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C2C5OH
  • C. H2O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

Food web - Len Academy

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone



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The scrotum (or scrotal sac) is visible on every male as it lies underneath the penis, hanging from the midline of the pelvic region just between both thighs. It is a part of the external male genitalia.

Please read on an Introduction to the Male Reproductive System here.

Inside the scrotal sac are two oval shaped testicles or testes (singular -> testis) which are responsible for the formation and storage of sperm.

The process of sperm formation is referred to as spermatogenesis.

  • Sperm is the male gamete in humans and other animals while the egg or ova is the female gamete. You can think of a gamete as the sex cell; and their union (sperm + ova) is termed fertilization. A zygote is formed immediately fertilization occurs. It is this zygote that develops into the embryo -> foetus and eventually a neonate (newly born child).

Note: The scrotum is divided in its midline by the perineal raphe.

The perineal raphe is present in males and females. It is visible as a midline seen on some parts of the human body.

The image below shows the scrotum, perineal raphe and the internal contents of the scrotum:
Scrotum - Len Academy

The scrotum is located outside the body and that's ideal. This is so because the testis requires a temperature slightly lower than that of the normal body temperature (36.5oC) to properly form sperms. In fact, this is the very reason why the testes descends from the abdominal cavity (inside the body) to the scrotum (outside the body). This external position of scrotum therefore presents a temperature reduced by -1oC to -7oC.

  • As a male, one may have observed that on cold days, the scrotum hang towards the body. Conversely, it tends to move downwards (away from the body) on warmer days.
    Please read on Homeostasis here.

Sperm is produced by the testes residing within the scrotum; and the surrounding temperature is extremely important for it's formation. To this end, the cremaster muscles of the scrotum have got a great ability to contract and relax, thus aiding the testes to either move closer to the body or away from it; depending on the surrounding temperature.

Note: Sperm and Semen is not the same thing.

Sperm is the male sex cell (and it happens to be the smallest cell in the human body). It is exactly what meets and fertilizes the female sex cell (ova or egg which is the biggest cell in the human body).

Please read on Amazing Facts in Biology here.

Millions of sperm cells are always introduced into the female’s vagina during ejaculation; and they swim upwards (towards the oviduct or fallopian tube in the female) with the aid of their tail-like structure called flagella.

Semen refers to the thick whitish (or slightly yellowish) and viscous fluid released from the penis. This process of releasing semen in males is termed ejaculation.

Ejaculation is always accompanied with a characteristic feeling of pleasure. In fact, this pleasurable feeling is the climax of sexual excitement and it's referred to as orgasm.

Note: The sperm cells are actually present within the semen. This is shown in the image below:
Sperm vs Semen - Len Academy

In summary, we can say that the semen contains the following:

  • The sperm cells
  • Amino Acids
  • Enzymes
  • Vitamin C
  • Zinc prostate specific antigen
  • Mucus
  • Prostagladins
  • Phosphatases
  • Silic Acid
  • Flavins

Note: Apart from the sperm cells, many of these components (of the semen) are secretions from the male accessory reproductive glands.

Please read on the Male Accessory Sex Organs here.

Apart from the testicles, also found in the scrotum are:

1. Epididymis

The epididymis is a comma-shaped highly convoluted or coiled tubule of about 6 to 7 meters in length. It can be seen on the superior, lateral and posterior sides of each testis.
Epididymis - Len Academy

The epididymis is divided into 3 parts. These are:

  1. Head of the epididymis
  2. Body of the epididymis
  3. Tail of the epididymis

The epididymis generally serves the following functions:

  • It stores sperm for about 80 days, bringing them to maturity.
  • It also improves sperm motility by absorbing some of the fluids produced by the testicles during sperm formation.
  • The epididymis also protects the sperm cells.
  • The epididymis leads into another tubule called the vas deferens. The muscles surrounding the epididymis aid in propelling sperm into the vas deferens via their contractions.

2. Vas Deferens

The vas deferens is found both within and above the scrotum. It is a long muscular tube that begins at the tail of the epididymis and runs through into the ejaculatory ducts. (Please see the diagram of the spermatic cord below).

Note: The contraction of the smooth muscles of the vas deferens helps in propelling the sperm during ejaculation. Also, as sperm move from the vas deferens into the urethra, secretions are added to it from the male accessory sex glands.

The vas deferens is also called the ductus deferens.

You can read on Sexual Reproduction in Plants here.

3. Spermatic Cord

This is a cord-like structure formed by the vas deferens. It plays an important role in the supply of blood to the testes and vas deferens. It also aids the movement of sperm out of the epididymis into the ejaculatory ducts.

Below is an image showing the contents of the spermatic cord:
Testis - Len Academy

Note:The spermatic cord contains a large amount of blood vessels and nerves. The blood vessels supply blood to the testes, epididymis and cremaster muscles while its nerves assist in transferring information back and forth from the scrotum, testicles and the cremaster muscles.

Please read on the Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin here.

4. Cremaster Muscles

They help in the movement of the testicles towards and away from the body in order to achieve an ideal temperature for sperm formation.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.

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An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages

Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.

Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or ptyalin which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose.

Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide.

Please read on sugars here


For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the Basic Characteristics of Life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

Food Chain - Len Academy

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life.
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.

Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere