Topics in PhysicsDerived Units: Similarities and differences with fundamental units Gravity: Facts on Gravity Relative Density of Substances and Specific Gravity Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction Types of Heat Transfer: Convection Types of Heat Transfer: Radiation Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Physics Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Velocity and Acceleration Newton's Laws of Motion Importance of Gravity What is Density? Density of various substances Concepts of Force and Motion in Physics Motion and Speed in Physics Concept of Heat Transfer Concepts of Heat and Temperature What is gravity? Concept of gravity on the solar system Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium Fundamental Quantities and Units in Physics
Academic Questions in Physics
Which of the following is a fundamental quantity?
A. Luminous Intensity
An object at rest will temporarily stay in its state of rest, and if the object is in uniform motion, it will temporarily move in a straight line, unless an external force acts upon it.
The above statement refers to Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion.
Which of the following statement is incorrect concerning gravity?
A. The force of gravity is generally considered the strongest force among the four forces that govern the universe
B. Your weight changes as you travel away from the earth
C. If we dig the earth until we get into its center, we will have no weight as a result of lack of gravity
D. Gravity prevents us from falling off the constantly rotating earth
E. If a hammer and a feather are dropped simultaneously in a vacuum, they will both land at the exact same time as a result of gravity
F. Weight is always a function of gravity
Sir Isaac Newton was hit by an apple when he pondered on force, motion and gravity.
The movement of gaseous particles through a tiny hole is termed _____.
A lighted bulb transfers heat through a process termed _____.
F. Electrical Induction
A measurement of how much the velocity of an object changes with time is termed _____.
E. Velocity-Time graph
F. Average velocity
Which of the following differentiates velocity from speed?
F. Distance and Time
Derived units are the units of derived quantities. They are dependent on fundamental quantities and are expressed from the combination of two or more fundamental units.
Please read more on the concept of unit and fundamental units here. This knowledge is necessary.
As the name implies, derived units are always derived (from fundamental units). For instance, velocity is a quantity whose unit is derived from length and time (both of which are fundamental quantities) as summarized in the paragraph below.
Since derived units are always derived from fundamental units, we cannot have 'feet per second' as the unit of velocity. This is because the unit feet isn't the ideal measurement for length (or distance); although it may be used as a unit of measurement in some cases.
You can read on motion and speed here.
Below are examples of some derived quantities and their units:
The diagram below shows some derived quantities, their respective derived unit and the unit's symbol. For instance, the first derived quantity from the table is 'area'. The derived unit for area is meter square (or square meter) whose symbol is m2.
It is important to state that the unit of area (m2) is derived from length. Meanwhile, recall that length is a fundamental unit.>
You can read on basic and fundamental physics concepts here.
Both units are used to express physical quantities.
Both are recognized as the Standard International System of Units (SI Units).
You can read on heat transfer by conduction here.
Fundamental units are independent of every other unit including themselves while derived units are dependent on fundamental units.
Fundamental units cannot be further broken down while derived units can be broken down.
We have seven fundamental units while derived units are much more in number.
Fundamental units are uniquely expressed while derived units are expressed in terms of fundamental units.
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Amazing facts in Physics
A medium-sized cumulus cloud has a weight of about 80 adult elephants.
You can think of cumulus cloud as a detached, individual, cauliflower-shaped cloud often seen in fair weather conditions
The reason the Leaning Tower of Pisa is tilted is the same reason it's still standing
One quarter of an apple is filled with air and that's why they float in water
The Nobel price was named after its founder, Alfred Noble. He is a Swedish, born on October 21, 1833; and was the inventor of dynamite. He was also a a famous scientist and a successful business man.
Glass balls bounce higher than rubber balls
Every planet has its own unique gravitational force. For instance, Mars has a gravity of 3.711 m/s2 while earth’s gravitational force is 9.807m/s2.
When two metals are put together in space, they will stick together as if they are welded. This phenomenon is called cold welding
The fastest animal on land is cheetah. It can reach a maximum speed of about 113km per hour.
Notable points in Physics
If one covers a distance of 10,000 meters in 50 seconds and another covers the same distance in 5,000 seconds, we can conclude that the first person has a greater speed because he covered the same distance at a lesser time.
Speed is defined as distance travelled per unit of time. It can also be defined as the rate of change of distance.
Speed = distance/Time
Speed is a scalar quantity since it has only magnitude. Speed does not have a direction.
In physics, motion is defined as a change in the position of an object with reference to time.
Although we sometimes sit or stand in a fixed position, that doesn’t mean motion isn’t taking place. The fact that the earth is constantly rotating implies that we are indirectly moving along with it. We can thus say that motion can be relative to some frame of reference.
In the above paragraph, the earth (constantly rotating along its axis) is our frame of reference and everything present on earth is in motion (with regard to earth as a frame of reference).
Heat is a form of energy. It cannot be lost according to the first law of Thermodynamics; rather it will be transferred. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are stated below:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed or converted from one form to another.
1st law of thermodynamics
In the course of energy transfer, some energy is lost in the form of heat to the surroundings.
2nd law of Thermodynamics
If we have water of 100OC in an aluminium cup whose temperature is the same as that of its surrounding; let’s say 22OC; We will observe the followings:
The temperature of water inside the aluminum cup will begin to decrease from its initial 100OC.
The temperature of the aluminium cup will increase from its previous 22OC.
After some time, the temperature of the water, aluminium cup and the surrounding will become the same.
From the above instance, it can be deduced that the heat present in the water molecules are first transferred to the aluminium cup and subsequently to the surrounding.
Heat from water >> Aluminium Cup >> Surrounding
Meanwhile, understand that aluminium is a metal; and metals are good conductors of heat.
Eventually, the system (water and aluminum cup) together with the surrounding reaches the same temperature; and the heat transfer ceases. It is at this point that the water, aluminium cup and the surroundings are said to have reached a thermal equilibrium.
Heat is never static. It is always transferred and thus: an object will increase its temperature by gaining heat energy from its surroundings while another object will simultaneously decrease its temperature by losing its heat energy to the surroundings. For this reason, we may also define temperature as:
The measure or ability of an object or substance to transfer heat energy to another object or substance.
The higher the temperature, the greater the ability of an object or substance to transfer heat. Conversely, the lower the temperature, the greater the tendency of an object to receive the transferred heat.
The point is: 'for heat to be transferred, we must have systems or objects or substances with varying temperatures