Agricultural Science

Agricultural machines and their uses

len Alfred Ajibola - Sat, 29th February, 2020 @ 10:48 AM

Topics in Agricultural Science

Clay soil explained with its types and characteristics Loamy soil explained with its characteristics Sandy soil: Characteristics of sandy soil and ways to make it fertile Soil explained with its composition Types of agricultural practices Crop rotation explained Benefits of crop rotation Differences between subsistence and commercial farming Subsistence farming explained with its characteristics What is commercial farming? Types of commercial farming Characteristics of commercial farming Importance of forest: Forest reserves in Nigeria Wildlife reserves in Nigeria and its importance Prevention and Control of Crop Pests Economic Importance of Crop Pests Classification of Insect Pests and their Economic Importance Agricultural machines and their uses Causes of soil erosion Ways to prevent soil erosion Asexual Propagation in Plants, Types and Examples

Academic Questions in Agricultural Science

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The ideal pH for the optimum growth of most agricultural crop is between _____.

  • A. 1 – 3.5

  • B. 4 – 5.5

  • C. 6 – 7.5

  • D. 8 – 9.5

  • E. 10 – 11.5

  • F. 12 – 13.5

People who go about their lives by raising and herding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats are said to practice _____.

  • A. Pastoralism

  • B. Pasturalism

  • C. Herding

  • D. Herdsmen

  • E. Animalism

  • F. Anime Farming

The act of giving birth in pigs is called _____.

  • A. Calving

  • B. Piggery

  • C. Kidding

  • D. Farrowing

  • E. Calfing

  • F. Pigging

Which of the following is not a vegetable?

  • A. Cashew

  • B. Cocumber

  • C. Tomatoes

  • D. Carrot

  • E. Squash

  • F. Eggplant

All plants are crops.

  • A. True

  • B. False

In agriculture, macronutrients are essential nutrients required by plants. Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

  • A. Zinc

  • B. Sulphur

  • C. Calcium

  • D. Phosphorus

  • E. Potassium

  • F. Magnesium

Which of the following is false concerning micronutrients?

  • A. They are non-essential nutrients

  • B. They are required by plants in minute quantities

  • C. Iron is a micronutrient

  • D. Chlorine is a micronutrient

  • E. Copper is a micronutrient

  • F. Boron is a micronutrient

_____ is a term that describes the biological, chemical and cultural control tactics employed to make pest management economical, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable.

  • A. Integrated Pest Management

  • B. Integral Pest Management

  • C. International Pest Management

  • D. Inclusive Pest Management

  • E. Imbibed Pest Management

  • F. Inclusion Pest Management

What is mechanized farming ?

Mechanised farming is a system of farming whereby agricultural machines are utilized on farmlands. The use of agricultural machines greatly increases the farmer's output and productivity. For this reason, they are used on large farmlands, thus replacing the primitive simple farm tools.

Please read on agricultural tools and their uses here.

Below are various agricultural machines and their uses:


1. Tractor

Tractor - Len Academy

An tractor serves a variety of purposes. In agriculture, one of such purpose is to effectively pull or push other agricultural machines like planters, rollers, plough, reaper, balers, mowers, combine harvester and so on.

They are also used for carrying or hauling different types of large materials from one point to another.

You can read on the roles of government in agricuture here.

2. Irrigation Sprinkler

Irrigation Sprinklers - Len Academy

Irrigation sprinklers are also referred to as sprinklers or water sprinklers.

They are used to water large areas of farmland. They may also be used for controlling dust particles generated from various activities carried out on land.

You can attempt Len questions on agricutural science here.

3. Plough

Plough - Len Academy

They are pulled by tractors and utilized in cultivating the soil, preparing it for sowing. They do this by turning over the upper layers of the soil in order to expose fresh nutrients to its surface. Through this action, small plants, weeds and other particles present on the soil becomes buried, thus bringing about their eventual breakdown and decomposition.

Please read on the causes of soil erosion here.

4. Cultivator

Cultivator - Len Academy

A cultivator helps to efficiently mix the soil with organic fertilizers and other materials.

The cultivator is also used for the preparation of seedbed. It is able to carry out this function because it controls weeds, while also warming the soil on an agricultural land. Through this process, the planted crops are able to grow on the soil which now contains less weed, adequate water and more nutrients.

Please read on agricultural land and its uses here.

5. Reaper

Reaper - Len Academy

They are also driven by a tractor. The reaper helps to cut crops into a size of about 3-4 inches above ground level. The crops are then carried via its conveyor belt.

A reaper is very useful for harvesting crops like cereals, grasses, oats and barley.

You can read on the problems of agriculture in Nigeria here.

6. Subsoiler

Subsoiler - Len Academy

They are tractor driven and are used for tilling the soil. A subsoiler acts as a tillage machine that breaks up and loosens the soil. They prove to be useful in farmlands with compacted soils.

Please read on soil erosion here.

7. Agricultural Rollers

Agricultural Rollers - Len Academy

They are pulled by tractors and are used to level the soil by breaking large clumps of particles present on the surface of the soil.

8. Harrows

Harrows - Len Academy

They are commonly termed 'a set of harrows'.

They perform a tillage function like the plough and subsoiler. However, that of the harrows occur at the surface of the soil.

Functionally, a harrow breaks and level up the soil's surface.

9. Mowers

Mowers - Len Academy

Mowers are agricultural machines used mainly for cutting grass (and forage crops).

Due to the manner at which the grasses are cut, hay and silage becomes the end result of the cut grasses. These are then placed into rows referred to as windrows.

You can read differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here.

10. Balers

Balers - Len Academy

A baler, also called a hay baler is used for compressing crops that had been cut or raked; for instance - silage, hay and flax straw. The baler aid in compacting the cut crops into bales so that they can be easily moved from one point to another. Also, the crops becomes easily stored when in bales.

Please read on agricultural terms and their meanings here.

11. Combine Harvester

Combine Harvester - Len Academy

The combine harvester is simply referred to as 'combine'. It perfoms at least two functions.

Firstly, it reaps (harvests) grain crops. Secondly, it threshes it, separating the grain kernels from their seed coverings and other chaff that may be present around it.

In summary, the major operations carried out by the combine harvester are reaping, threshing and winnowing.

You can read on asexual propagation in plants here.

12. Planter

Planter - Len Academy

A planter (usually towed behind a tractor) functions to plant or sow seeds in rows throughout the farmland.

The planter plants the seeds down the soil in a definite manner along rows at regular intervals.

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Amazing facts in Agricultural Science

Cows technically have one stomach, not four. However, a cow's stomach has four compartments. These are: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

Peanuts are legumes and not nuts

Although plants neither see nor hear, they can recognize their siblings and even give them preferential treatments

Squirrels do plant more trees (through their actions) than an average human in their lifetime. They often hide their acorns and nuts underground and forget about them

Cows have got the ability to walk up stairs, but not down stairs

A group of cows is called a team, drove or herd.

People just prefer to call them herd

Notable points in Agricultural Science

Below are characteristics of gymnosperms:

  1. Their seeds have cones that protect them.

  2. Sepals and petals aren't present in their cones.

  3. Stigma and style are absent.

  4. They do not produce fruits. Only seeds are formed.

  5. Companion cells are absent.

  6. Sporophyll form the cones.

  7. Anther and filament are absent.

  8. The ovules are not present in the ovary.

  9. Gymnosperms do not possess flowers.

  10. Please read on the anatomical differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms here

The flower is the reproductive organ in plants' sexual reproduction. In order to achieve a successful sexual propagation or reproduction in plants, the floral parts of the flower are utilized.

The floral parts of a flower consists of the followings:

  1. Sepals

  2. Petals

  3. Stamen

  4. Carpel

The stamen is male portion of a plant. It consists of the anther and filament.

The carpel (or pistil) is the female portion of the plant. It consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

Please read more on plants' sexual reproduction here

An organism will be considered a pest if it does one of the followings:

  • Attack crops and eat its seeds, roots, stem, leaves and flowers. Examples are locust and grasshoppers.

  • Cause damage to stored food, fruits or other agricultural produce. Some may even urinate or deaficate on these products. Examples are rodents, cockroaches and mice.

  • Attack and kill farm animals like goats, sheep and cattle. Examples are foxes, wild cats and snakes.

  • Act as disease vectors. A vector is an organism that carries parasite and other disease causing organisms, without being affected; but when they introduce the parasites into their host, such host becomes infected with disease. Examples of vectors are rodents and mosquitoes.

    Please read more on vectors of diseases here.

Below are the classification of crops based on their uses:

  • Oil crops

  • Vegetable crops

  • Latex crops

  • Drug and Medicinal crops

  • Beverage crops

  • Fibre crops

  • Fruit crops

  • Root and Tubers

  • Legumes

  • Spices

  • Cereals

All crops are plants but not all plants are crops. Below are some instances:

  • Weeds are considered as plants, not crops.

  • Parasitic plants are not necessarily crops. Examples of parasitic plants include mistletoe, corpse flower and striga.

  • Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are not necessarily crops. Examples are sundew, venus flytrap and pitcher plant. The image below shows a carnivorous plant (venus flytrap).

Venus flytrap - Len Academy


Meanwhile, always understand that all crops are plants, and they are grown for food, money or something beneficial.

Please read on plants versus crops here