Biology

Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs

len Alfred Ajibola - Mon, 02nd March, 2020 @ 18:05

Topics in Biology

Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests


Academic Questions in Biology

Please check out our Test Your Knowledge page to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C​​​​​​2​​​​C5OH
  • C. H2​​​​​O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. osteocytes
  • B. osteoblasts
  • C. osteoclasts
  • D. chondroblasts
  • E. chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?

  • A. Gives Shape
  • B. Provides Protection
  • C. Aids in Locomotion
  • D. Supports Movement
  • E. Assists in Inhalation and Exahalation
  • F. None of the above
  • G. All of the above

Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.

  • A. autotrophs
  • B. chemosynthetic
  • C. photosynthentic
  • D. chemoautotrophs
  • E. photoautotrophs
  • F. chemoautotrophs

Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.

  • A. heterotrophs
  • B. autotrophs
  • C. homotrophs
  • D. producers
  • E. photosynthetic
  • F. chemosynthetic

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What are the Male Accessory Sex Organs?

Semen produced by males require the active functions of the male accessory sex organs to become properly formed. In fact, without these accessory organs, sperms present within the semen may become unable to fertilize an ova or egg within the fallopian tube (or oviduct) of the female reproductive system.

To better comprehend the distinctions between semen and sperm, Please read on the male reproductive system (scrotum and its contents) here.

The accessory male reproductive organs include the followings:

  1. Seminal Vesicles
  2. Prostate Gland

    Please read on the Male Accessory Sex Organs (Prostate Glands) and Ejaculatory Ducts here.

  3. Bulbourethral Glands or Cowper's Glands

The focus of this article will be on the seminal vesicles and and Bulbourethral Glands as male accessory sex organs:

 

  • Seminal Vesicles

A male has a pair of seminal vesicles (vesicula seminalis) located just above the prostrate gland; and posterior to the base of the urinary bladder.

Below is an image showing the anatomical position of the seminal vesicle:

Seminal Vesicle - Len Academy

The main function of the seminal vesicle is to add viscous and alkaline secretions to the sperm already present in the ejaculatory ducts.

The secretions or fluid of the seminal vesicle does the following:

  • The alkalinity of this fluid helps to neutralize any acidity produced in the environment of the urethra. (The acidity of the urethral environment may result from the passage of acidic urine through it).
    You can read on the Concepts and Definitions of Acid here.
  • The secretions of the seminal vesicles also neutralizes the acidic environment of the vagina, hence fostering sperm survival within it.

The seminal fluid is composed up of the followings:

1. Fructose

This is a simple sugar that's used for ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) generation.

ATP is the energy essential for sperm motility. This is important because the sperms may swim upwards (against gravity) in the female reproductive tract.

For now, think of ATP as the energy currency of the body.

Please read on Carbohydrates and Sugars here.


2. Prostaglandins

They reduce the negative effects of the female immune system that may act upon the sperm cells. This process increasing the chances of a sperm's survival in the female reproductive tract.

Please read on Immunization here.


3. Semenogelin

This fluid creates a gel like structure around the sperm, thus protecting it. The appearance of semen is largely attributed to the viscosity of the semenogelin.

 

  • Bulbourethral Glands

They are also called the Cowper’s gland.

The bulbourethral glands are two pea like shaped organs located just below the prostate gland and at the beginning (or root) of the penis.

Please read on Male Reproductive System (Penis and Parts of the Penis) here.

The anatomical position of the bulbourethral glands are shown in the diagram below:

Cowper's Gland - Len Academy

In addition to the prostate and seminal fluids, the bulbourethral glands also secrete fluid into the semen during the process of ejaculation. The fluid from the bulbourethral glands serve the following functions:

  • The fluid is clear and thick, functioning to lubricate the urethra. The semen flows out of the penis through the lubricated urethra.
  • It is also considered that the bulbourethral secretions creates a better condition for sperm cells to survive.

Note: Although the urethra isn't considered a part of the male accessory reproductive gland, it still performs a vital role in the male reproductive system.

You can read on the Introduction to Human Brain here.


Below is a summarized explanation on the urethra:

  • Urethra

The male urethra is a single tube-like structure that serves two functions. These are:

  1. Micturition. (The act of urinating).
  2. Conduction and Movement of semen during ejaculation.

In males, the urethra is a narrow fibro-muscular tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior. It also conducts semen from the ejaculatory ducts to the exterior.

Male Urethra - Len Academy

The conduction on urine and semen through the urethra does not occur simultaneously.

The male urethra is about 7 to 8 inches in length; and it runs through the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and the entire length of the penis before emptying its content to the exterior.

The urethra has three sections. These are:

1. Prostatic Urethra: This is the uppermost portion of the urethra. It lies inside the prostate gland.

3. Membranous Urethra: This is the segment within the urethral sphincter. It is important to state that urine or semen can only come out singly (one at a time); and that's when the membranous urethra is opened.

3. Spongy or Penile Urethra: This is the lowest and longest section of the urethra. It lies within the entire length of the penis, leading to the exterior. (Please see the image above)

Note: The exterior opening of the urethra is also called the external urethral orifice or meatus.

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology

For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:

  1. Movement

  2. Respiration

  3. Nutrition

  4. Irritability or Sensitivity

  5. Growth

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Death

  9. Adaptation

  10. Competition

Please read the explanations on all the Basic Characteristics of Life here

During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.

This is the concept of anaerobic respiration

A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.

Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:

  • Terrestrial (Land)
  • Aquatic (Water)
  • Arboreal (🌲 Treetops)

You can read on Food Chain here

The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:

  • Bios: means life. 
  • Logos: means knowledge or to study.

Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life

Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:

  1. Movement
  2. Respiration
  3. Nutrition
  4. Irritability or Sensitivity
  5. Growth
  6. Excretion
  7. Reproduction
  8. Death
  9. Adaptation
  10. Competition

The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).

You can read on the introduction to Biology and the basic characteristics of life here

The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2. 

Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here

Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere