Topics in BiologyBiology Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 2nd Term Biology Scheme of Work, SS1, 3rd Term Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral Glands as Male Accessory Sex Organs Male Reproductive System: Scrotum and its contents Brain: Introduction to the Human Brain Forebrain: Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions Cerebellum: Parts and Functions of the Cerebellum Midbrain: Division and Functions of the Midbrain Negative Feedback Mechanism in Homeostasis Arterial Disorders: Characteristics and Causes of Arterial Disorders Types of Desert and their Characteristics Characteristics of Tropical Rainforest Swamp Forest: What are Swamp Forests? Characteristics of Swamp Forests Savanna: Savanna and Grassland explained Savanna - Types of Savanna Tropical Savanna and Temperate Savanna with their Characteristics Introduction to Biomes: What is a Biome? Importance of Swamp Forests
Academic Questions in Biology
Which of the following is a category of long bones?
The end product of photosynthesis is _____.
The above diagram illustrates a _____.
The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.
Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the human skeleton?
Organisms that manufacture their own food through the help of sunlight or chemicals are best referred to as _____.
Organisms that begins a food chain and also manufacture their food through photosynthesis are best referred to as _____.
Semen produced by males require the active functions of the male accessory sex organs to become properly formed. In fact, without these accessory organs, sperms present within the semen may become unable to fertilize an ova or egg within the fallopian tube (or oviduct) of the female reproductive system.
To better comprehend the distinctions between semen and sperm, Please read on the male reproductive system (scrotum and its contents) here.
The accessory male reproductive organs include the followings:
The focus of this article will be on the seminal vesicles and and Bulbourethral Glands as male accessory sex organs:
A male has a pair of seminal vesicles (vesicula seminalis) located just above the prostrate gland; and posterior to the base of the urinary bladder.
Below is an image showing the anatomical position of the seminal vesicle:
The main function of the seminal vesicle is to add viscous and alkaline secretions to the sperm already present in the ejaculatory ducts.
The secretions or fluid of the seminal vesicle does the following:
The seminal fluid is composed up of the followings:
This is a simple sugar that's used for ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) generation.
ATP is the energy essential for sperm motility. This is important because the sperms may swim upwards (against gravity) in the female reproductive tract.
For now, think of ATP as the energy currency of the body.
They reduce the negative effects of the female immune system that may act upon the sperm cells. This process increasing the chances of a sperm's survival in the female reproductive tract.
This fluid creates a gel like structure around the sperm, thus protecting it. The appearance of semen is largely attributed to the viscosity of the semenogelin.
They are also called the Cowper’s gland.
The bulbourethral glands are two pea like shaped organs located just below the prostate gland and at the beginning (or root) of the penis.
The anatomical position of the bulbourethral glands are shown in the diagram below:
In addition to the prostate and seminal fluids, the bulbourethral glands also secrete fluid into the semen during the process of ejaculation. The fluid from the bulbourethral glands serve the following functions:
Note: Although the urethra isn't considered a part of the male accessory reproductive gland, it still performs a vital role in the male reproductive system.
Below is a summarized explanation on the urethra:
The male urethra is a single tube-like structure that serves two functions. These are:
In males, the urethra is a narrow fibro-muscular tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior. It also conducts semen from the ejaculatory ducts to the exterior.
The conduction on urine and semen through the urethra does not occur simultaneously.
The male urethra is about 7 to 8 inches in length; and it runs through the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and the entire length of the penis before emptying its content to the exterior.
The urethra has three sections. These are:
1. Prostatic Urethra: This is the uppermost portion of the urethra. It lies inside the prostate gland.
3. Membranous Urethra: This is the segment within the urethral sphincter. It is important to state that urine or semen can only come out singly (one at a time); and that's when the membranous urethra is opened.
3. Spongy or Penile Urethra: This is the lowest and longest section of the urethra. It lies within the entire length of the penis, leading to the exterior. (Please see the image above)
Note: The exterior opening of the urethra is also called the external urethral orifice or meatus.
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Amazing facts in Biology
Male Seahorses actually give birth to their young ones, NOT the female
All babies are born with blue eyes
Research made at the University of Vienna suggested that yawning may play an essential role in cooling the brains
All voluntary and concious activity of right handed people are controlled from the left part or hemisphere of the brain
A snail can actually sleep for 3 years 😁
An adult human being is composed of about 60% water. In fact, a newly born baby is composed of about 80% of water. This will drop to 65% after a year and finally to about 60% as the child ages
Without saliva, food can never be enjoyed. Food becomes tasteless since saliva is needed to dissolve the chemicals present in food onto the tongue’s taste buds.
Saliva also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase or "ptyalin" which helps to digest cooked starch to maltose. Maltose is a double sugar or disaccharide. Please read on sugars here
NOTABLE POINTS IN Biology
For a thing to be considered Living, it must possess all the Basic Characteristics of Life. These include:
Irritability or Sensitivity
During strenuous exercises like sprinting or 🏃 running, your body may actually work in the shortage of oxygen. During this time, your body owes oxygen (called oxygen debt) and it must be replenished or repayed after the exercise is stopped. This is why you breathe excess of oxygen after you stopped the exercise.
This is the concept of anaerobic respiration
A food Chain is a diagram that shows the relationship between plants and animals within a habitat on the basis of how they rely on each other for food.
Note: Habitat is a place where an organism live. It is of three types:
The term Biology originated from two Greek words. They are:
Biology can therefore be defined is the study of life
Anything that has life is generally considered as a living organism (or organism) 🌱🐐🐓. All living organisms must be able to carry the following activities:
The above listed points are often regarded as the basic characteristics of life. You can memorize them using the acronym (MR. NIGER DAC).
The gas used in the manufacture of food by plants is Carbon dioxide or Carbon(IV)oxide or CO2.
Plants manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis. Please read on photosynthesis here
Note: Plants are the only orgnisms that take away CO2 from the atmosphere