Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Disease causing organisms are termed _____.
E. Disease carriers
F. All the above options are correct
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
Carbohydrates, often referred to as sugars or saccharides or carbs, are one of the six classes of food. The others include protein, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water.
Carbohydrates are the body's first choice of energy and are typically eaten in the form of cooked starch. They are subsequently broken down into glucose, an absorbable and usable form of carbohydrate by the body cells. However, athletes may choose to have their carbohydrate meal directly as glucose since quick energy is required for their immediate activities.
Examples of food containing carbohydrates include table sugar (sucrose), milk (contains lactose as carbohydrates), rice and cassava.
Please read on the concept of food here.
Carbohydrates are classified into four types or categories. These are:
Please read on polysaccharides and monosaccharides here.
Below are explanations on disaccharides and oligosaccharides:
They are composed of two monosaccharides joined together. For this reason, they are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food. As an instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide typically used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide lactose. Lactose is crucial for the normal growth and development of neonates and infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them (as adults).
Please read more on nutrients here.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides (single sugars) that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
The term oligosaccharide has its origin in Greek language. In this regard, 'oligo' means 'few' and saccharide 'sugar'. Juxtaposing both words, oligosaccharide simple imply sugars that comprises of 3 to 10 molecules of monosaccharides.
You can attempt Len Academy questions and answers on various subjects here.
Oligosaccharides will typically occur as a family of molecules. As an instance, raffinoses (RFOs) are a family of oligosaccharides found in plants. They are formed from the combinations of galactose, glucose and fructose respectively.
Functionally, a raffinose serve as transport and storage sugars in plants. Also, they aid seed protection by absorbing it's water internally, thus making them dry, firm and preserved.
Below is an image showing the structural formula of raffinose:
Another eample of an oligosaccharide is the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs). They are short chains of fructose molecules present in vegetables. They are often considered as dietary fibres which are naturally soluble.
A third example of a naturally occurring oligosaccharide is galactooligosaccharides (GOSs). They consist of short chains of galactose molecules.
It is worthy of note to state that the human milk contains an oligosaccharide called human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The HMOs are derived from short chains lactose molecules.
Histologically, oligosaccharides are typically present as glycans around the cells. In this instance, they perform a role in determining the blood types of humans. Also, they aid in cell adhesions.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Matter is composed of particles which can be:
Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).
Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).
Completely separated (as seen in gases).
The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.
An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average
Among all organisms in the universe, the human brain is the most developed. This highly developed brain present in humans is the biggest factor that makes them unique from every other organism on earth.
According to research, the more folds a brain has, the more intelligent the organism possessing it will become. To this end, humans have brains with the greatest number of folds (or bumps) called gyri and grooves (or indentations) called sulci.
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on vectors of diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
Please read the explanations on the classification of wastes here