Topics in Basic ScienceResources from living things Resources from animals Importance of immunization Types of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates: Characteristics of Primates Effects of improper waste management Waste Management: Causes of waste in the society Concept of mass and weight Mineral Salts: Sources, functions and deficiencies of macronutrients Sources, functions and deficiencies of micronutrients Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1 Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Microorganisms causing food, water and air borne diseases Vector borne organisms and the diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Drugs explained with their types and side effects
Academic Questions in Basic Science
Which of the following diseases is associated with river blindness?
B. Lawnmower Disease
D. Devil's Crunch
The vector for yellow fever is _____.
A. Aedes Mosquito
B. Female Anopheles Mosquito
E. Black Fly
F. Bacillus Anthracis
The bones of the head and face make up the skull. These bones are _____ in number.
Bacteria are not a constituent of our environment.
Below are types of drugs. Which of these is considered as pain killers?
C. Opiods and Morphine Derivatives
E. Anabolic Steroids
Which of the following statement is false concerning drugs?
A. Drugs can be inhaled
B. Drugs can be injected directly into the bloodstream
C. Drugs can be eaten
D. Drugs exist exclusively in the forms of tablets and syrups
E. Drugs can be placed under the tongue
F. Drugs can be taken with water or another liquid
Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.
With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.
A. International bodies
Carbohydrates are classes of food composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) in the ratio of 1:2:1. They are the body's first choice for generating the energy needed to enable us go about our daily activities.
However, fats and proteins can also act as sources of energy but they aren't the body's first choice. As a matter of fact, fatty foods contain a higher calorie of energy (when compared with an equal amount of carbohydrate food). Meanwhile, carbohydrate and protein diets (of equal quantities) are considered to contain similar amount of calories.
Please read on the concept of food here.
Note: Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories of energy. Interestingly, they are the main source of energy for the muscle and brain cells respectively. Understand that other cells outside the brain and muscles can effectively use fats and proteins as alternative sources of energy if the need arises.
All carbohydrates are sugars
When we eat rice, yam, table sugar or even glucose, we are essentially eating carbohydrates or sugars. These sugars can be put into four types or classes or categories. They are:
Please read on disaccharides and oligosaccharides here.
Below are explanations on polysaccharides and monosaccharides respectively.
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. They are generally grouped into 4 types. These are:
Polysaccharides have got a general formula and that's 'Cx(H2O)y'. In this formula, 'x' is always a large number between 200 and 2500. This is however dependent on the repeating monosaccharides.
The image below shows the polysaccharide (starch) formed from many repeating glucose molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide in this instance.
You can read on molecular mass and molar mass with their calculations here.
From the general formula above, we can infer that polysaccharides are large molecules composed of repeating units of another type of sugar called monosaccharides or simple sugars.
Also called simple sugars, they are the end products (or final broken down products) of polysaccharides. They consist of one sugar unit and thus cannot be further broken down.
Consider the narrative below:
The monosaccharide (glucose) is eventually absorbed into the blood stream (through tiny villi from the small intestine). Eventually, they are conveyed by the blood to various bodily cells where they are utilized for energy production in the mitochondria.
Please read on the basic characteristics of life here.
Understand that glucose is the major monosaccharides utilized in the generation of energy or Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP) in the cell's power house (mitochondria).
The process of generating ATP in the mitochondria of cells is usually accomplished with the utilization of oxygen; hence the overall process is termed aerobic respiration
Note: Respiration can also occur in the absence of oxygen; and this is termed anaerobic respiration.
Monosaccharides generally have a chemical formula of 'C6H12O6'. This is shown in the image below, with each containing 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms respectively.
Glucose, fructose and galactose are the three major types of monosaccharides.
Functionally, fructose is involved in the body's metabolism while galactose has shown to be useful for the normal functioning of erythrocytes or red blood cells.
Please read more on red blood cells and hemoglobin here.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
The most common wild bird in the world is native to Africa, and it's the red-billed quelea with a population estimated to be around 1.5 billion
Of all animals, mosquitoes hold the record of killing most humans annually. They are responsible for the deaths of 725,000 - 1,000,000 persons yearly
Antibiotics fights and kills bacteria. However, they do nothing to a virus
All insects have six legs. However, dragonfly has six legs but can't walk
The chin is defined as the protruding part of the face below the mouth, formed by the apex of the lower lip. It is shown below:
Interestingly, humans are the only animals with chin
Ripe cranberries will bounce like a ball. For this reason, they are nicknamed 'bounceberries'. They will also float in water
Tomatoes and Avocados are fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Notable points in Basic Science
We have six classes of food. These are:
Fats and Oils
In humans, roughages are not classified as one of the classes of food. This is so because they aren't digested. Instead, roughages facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can become useful in treating constipation.
Food refers to anything that is ingested by living organisms, giving them nutrients and thus enabling them to stay alive.
As an instance, 99% of a panda's diet is bamboo. In this case, bamboo is considered as food to a panda since it provides a source of nutrient and keeps it alive. This is shown in the image below:
The only process in nature that actively enriches our atmosphere with oxygen is photosynthesis. Every other process like respiration, burning and combustion takes away oxygen from it. In addition, they introduce carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) into the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is also the only process that takes away carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is defined as a process by which green plants manufacture food by utilizing carbon(IV)oxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
Oxygen is given off as a by-product of photosynthesis. In regards to this, it is recommended that each person plants a tree.
Matter is composed of particles which can be:
Tightly packed together (as seen in solids).
Loosely packed together (as seen in liquids).
Completely separated (as seen in gases).
The movement of the particles of matter is a function of the overall kinetic energy present in them. You can think of kinetic energy as energy in motion.
An increase in the particles' vibrational, rotational or translational motion will imply an increase in temperature while a decrease in the particles motion (vibrational, rotational and translational) will mean a decrease in temperature. Based on this knowledge, we can therefore define temperature as the measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the particles of matter.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person's cognitive abilities in relation to their age group.
IQ may also be defined as the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100.
Below are some formulas pertaining Intelligence Quotient:
IQ = MA x 100 ÷ CA
MA = Mental age
CA = Chronological age
IQ above 100 = Brilliance
IQ that equals 100 = Average
IQ below 100 = Below Average