Topics in Basic ScienceTypes of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides Carbohydrates: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS2, 2nd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 3rd Term Len Academy Examination Questions for Basic Science, JSS3, 2nd Term Primates - Characteristics of Primates Effects of Improper Waste Management Waste Management: Causes of Waste Concept of Mass and Weight Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Macro-nutrients) Sources, Functions and Deficiencies of Mineral Salts (Micro-nutrients) Len Academy questions for Basic Science JSS1, second Term Len Academy mid-term test questions for Basic Science JSS1, 2nd Term Micro organisms causing food, water and air borne Diseases Vectors - Examples of Vectors, Vector borne Organisms and the Diseases they cause Bones of the Human Skeleton Meaning of Drugs, Type of Drugs and Side effects of Drugs Immunization, Processes involved in immunization and its importance Food: What is food? Uniqueness of Man: Unique Characteristics of Man
Academic Questions in Basic Science
____ is formed from a reaction utilizing oxygen and glucose in the mitochondria of cells.
Which of the following statement is false concerning carbohydrates?
A. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only
B. Carbon has the highest ratio of the constituent elements of carbohydrates
C. All carbohydrates are sugars
D. Fructose is a carbohydrate
E. Natural milk contains lactose and it's a carbohydrate
F. Fatty foods contains high calories of energy when compared to the same quantity of carbohydrate foods
Which of the following is a class of food?
Brachiation is a specialized form of movement exhibited by _____.
A. Human beings
_____ is a form of locomotion whereby an organism move by means of its two hind limbs.
B. Duo Pedalism
C. Double Pedalism
D. Dual Pedalism
The human brain is folded into gyri, grooved into sulci and also the most developed among all organisms in the universe.
According to science, all human beings are animals.
Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.
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Carbohydrates are classes of food composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) in the ratio of 1:2:1. They are the body's first choice for generating the energy needed to enable us go about our daily activities.
However, fats and proteins can also act as sources of energy but they aren't the body's first choice. As a matter of fact, fatty foods contain a higher calorie of energy (when compared with an equal amount of carbohydrate food). Meanwhile, carbohydrate and protein diets (of equal quantities) are considered to contain similar amount of calories.
Note: Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories of energy. Interestingly, they are the main source of energy for the muscle and brain cells respectively. Understand that other cells outside the brain and muscles can effectively use fats and proteins as alternative sources of energy if the need arises.
All carbohydrates are sugars
When we eat rice, yam, table sugar or even glucose, we are essentially eating carbohydrates or sugars. These sugars can be put into four types or classes or categories. They are:
Below are explanations on polysaccharides and monosaccharides respectively.
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. They are generally grouped into 4 types. These are:
Polysaccharides have got a general formula and that's 'Cx(H2O)y'. In this formula, 'x' is always a large number between 200 and 2500. This is however dependent on the repeating monosaccharides.
The image below shows the polysaccharide (starch) formed from many repeating glucose molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide in this instance.
From the general formula above, we can infer that polysaccharides are large molecules composed of repeating units of another type of sugar called monosaccharides or simple sugars.
Also called simple sugars, they are the end products (or final broken down products) of polysaccharides. They consist of one sugar unit and thus cannot be further broken down.
Consider the narrative below:
The monosaccharide (glucose) is eventually absorbed into the blood stream (through tiny villi from the small intestine). Eventually, they are conveyed by the blood to various bodily cells where they are utilized for energy production in the mitochondria.
Understand that glucose is the major monosaccharides utilized in the generation of energy or ATP or Adenosine TriPhosphate) in the cell's power house (mitochondria).
The process of generating ATP in the mitochondria of cells is usually accomplished with the utilization of oxygen; hence the overall process is termed aerobic respiration
Note: Respiration can also occur in the absence of oxygen; and this is termed anaerobic respiration.
Monosaccharides generally have a chemical formula of 'C6H12O6'. This is shown in the image below, with each containing 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms respectively.
Glucose, fructose and galactose are the three major types of monosaccharides.
Functionally, fructose is involved in the body's metabolism while galactose has shown to be useful for the normal functioning of erythrocytes or red blood cells.
Please read more on red blood cells and hemoglobin here.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
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Amazing facts in Basic Science
🍅 Tomatoes 🍅 and 🥑 Avocados 🥑 are actually fruits, not vegetables
Sweat in itself doesn't smell. The smell that accompanies sweat is actually caused by the presence of bacteria on your skin. This bacteria breaks the sweat coming out of your sweat pores down into acids, thus making it smell.
Deodorants contains alcohol and are antibacterial. They work by killing the bacteria that makes sweat smell
Chewing aspirin during a heart attack may be a life saver. This is true because the drug inhibits platelets from forming a clot that can block an artery of the heart, thus stopping a heart attack
The kneecaps of newly born babies are not made of bone. Rather, they are little bits of cartilage which ossifies (turns from cartilages to bone) from age 2 to 6
Ice cubes made with fresh water are white in color while those made with boiled water are crystal clear
🐈 Cats 🐈 are unable to taste sweet things
🍎 Apples 🍎 actually float on water. Other fruits that float on water include 🍋 lemons, 🍌 bananas, 🍐 pears, and 🍊 oranges
Rain water contains vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient that keeps the blood cells and neurones healthy. It also assist in building the DNA (a genetic material present in the cell's nucleus). Vitamin B12 also aid in the prevention of megaloblastic anemia which makes people weak and tired
Rasceta is the name given to the lines on your ✋ palm ✋
Goats have rectangular pupils in their eyes.
Think of the pupil as a hole located in the centre of the iris within of the eye.
Note: To get an idea of an iris; 'when one is said to have blue eyes', it's because the iris is blue
NOTABLE POINTS IN Basic Science
Waste Management can be defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.
Improperly disposed waste litters on road sides, in land fills, gutters and ditches. They are generally bad for the following reasons:
The waste block drainages hence resulting to flooding, especially during the rainy seasons.
Please read on Erosion here.
They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health.
They constitute nuisance and eyesore.
They become homes to various disease causing organisms.
Please read on Vectors of Diseases here.
Wastes can be classified into various types. These are:
Animal product waste
The African Star Apple is a seasonal fruit that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It's fondly called African Cherry, Agbalumo or Udara in some parts of Nigeria.
Below are some benefits of the African Star Apple:
It contains high amount of vitamin C
It contains a high amount of calcium
It contains high amount of potassium
It is a powerful antioxidant
It aids in weight reduction
It contains a high amount of iron
Its leaves, fruits and seeds are medicinal
It aids digestion and prevents vomiting
Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together; thus are also referred to as double sugars.
Disaccharides are often added as sweeteners to food; for instance, the table sugar called sucrose is a disaccharide often used by us to sweeten our tea.
Maltose is another disaccharide used as an ingredient for making malt drinks, chocolates and candies.
The breast milk contains the disaccharide Lactose.
Lactose is very vital for the normal growth and development of infants.
In adults, disaccharides are non essential nutrients. This implies that we can live without them as adults.
Below is a summary of monosaccharides that make up disaccharides (double sugars).
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Other examples of disaccharides include trehalulose and isomaltulose
Polysaccharides are complex sugars. These are what we often eat whenever we eat carbohydrates.
We have four types of polysaccharides namely:
Starchy foods include rice, cassava and yam.
Glycogen is stored in the human liver; as a result of the joining of many glucose molecules.
Chitin is a major component of insect and anthropod's skeleton.
Cellulose is a major component of a plant's cell wall. They cannot be digested when eaten by humans; hence they function as roughages.
Roughages are not classified as one the classes of food in humans. This is due to the fact that they aren't digested. They will rather facilitate the movement of bowels in the large intestine (colon); and for this reason, they can be very useful in treating constipation.