ICT

Types of computer network

len Alfred Ajibola - 05th November, 2021 @ 10:53 AM

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Academic Questions in ICT

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What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?

  • A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner

  • B. Click on the WhatsApp logo

  • C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner

  • D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app

  • E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner

  • F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner

The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.

  • A. Turning on data saving mode

  • B. Activating background apps

  • C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps

  • D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp

  • E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube

  • F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore

Twitter was launched in _____.

  • A. 2003

  • B. 2004

  • C. 2005

  • D. 2006

  • E. 2007

  • F. 2008

Due to the limitation of the Internet Protocol version 4 address, _____ was created.

  • A. IPv5

  • B. IPv6

  • C. IPv7

  • D. IPv8

  • E. IPv9

  • F. IPv10

The term _____ describes the billions of physical devices that will be connected to the internet.

  • A. Internet of Everything

  • B. Internet of Physical Devices

  • C. Internet of Things

  • D. Internet of Objects

  • E. Internetworking

  • F. Internetworking of Objects

A globally interconnected network system that utilizes TCP and IP to transmit data via various media is the _____.

  • A. World Wide Web (www)

  • B. Http

  • C. Https

  • D. Https://www

  • E. LAN

  • F. Internet

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The above image shows the _____ in a computer.

  • A. Expansion slot

  • B. Hard Disc Drive

  • C. Optical Drive

  • D. Power Supply Unit

  • E. Motherboard

  • F. Synchronous Dynamic Ram

The clock speed of a computer is the speed at which the _____.

  • A. HDD saves data

  • B. FDS saves data

  • C. SSD saves data

  • D. GPU receives and sends data

  • E. CPU processes data

  • F. RAM transfers data

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Types of Computer Networks

One of the ways to classify computer networks will be on the basis of geographical size.

A computer network can be so small that it will require only two computers in which one acts as the client and the other as server. An instance of this small network is one created through bluetooth on two phones.

Conversely, a computer network can be so large that it spans the entire globe. This type of network will comprise billions of connected computers that interact with one another. For instance, you are reading this article which had been sent from a computer (server) which may have its location somewhere in another continent. Meanwhile, understand that you are connected to this server through a network from your service provider. As a matter of fact, this is what the internet entails.

Please read an introduction to computer networks here.

Think of the internet as the largest computer network that spans the entire globe. People fondly refer to the internet as the Network of networks. Also, understand that the internet is a public network since anyone can freely have access to it.


Below are types of computer networks based on geographical size:


1. Personal Area Network (PAN)

Personal Area Network is a network consisting of few computers interacting with one another; and are typically within a range of 10 meters.

As the name implies , PAN is created for our personal use which could be in our homes or offices. For instance, your home may comprise of a Personal Area Network where your laptops, phones, console games like Play Station / X Box, television and refrigerator are all connected.

Personal Area Network (PAN) - Len Academy

You can read on the internet of things here.

Personal Area Network is a small network with a maximum range of about 30 meters. Understand that networks created by Bluetooth, WiFi, infrared, xender and other similar applications are all PANs.

It is noteworthy to state that the term SOHO stands for Small Office Home Office. SOHO networks are often connected via a PAN.

Note: Personal Area Network can be created via a wireless or a wired media. For this reason, PAN is of two types. These are:

  • Wireless PAN: Wireless technologies like WiFi and bluetooth are used here. The range of this network will vary depending on the wireless technology utilized.
  • Wired PAN: This can be created via the use of networking switches, routers and even a USB cable.

Thomas Zimmermam was the first research scientist to propose the idea of a Personal Area Network

 

2. Local Area Network (LAN)

A Local Area Network is a network formed by connection of computers and intermediary devices within a building and under a single administrative control. Intermediary devices in this instance refers to routers and switches.

Take for instance, banks and corporate buildings will usually have a LAN which must be controlled and protected by the Information Technology (IT) department present within the organizations. This will also mean that each branch of a bank will have its respective LAN managed by the IT department within such branch. This is shown in the image below:

Local Area Network (LAN) - Len Academy

In another instance, if we have a building which has four different companies within it; with each company having its separate network (that is, computers and intermediary devices connected appropriately), then each company within the building will be considered to have its respective LAN. In summary, we can therefore state that the specific building has four Local Area Networks within it.

A Local Area Network is dedicated to a building with its own administrative control. This is true if the building comprise of one organization only.

However, if different organizations (with their respective network administrative control) are present within the building, then, the number of LANs will be equivalent to the number of organizations within that building.

Always understand that the LAN remains local to an organization (or each organizations) within a building. Also, network security and speed are paramount within a LAN.

Cables, routers and switches are used to create the LAN network. The cables utilized can be copper twisted pair cable or coaxial cable. It is noteworthy to state that fibre optic cables aren't typically used in creating LANs, rather they are utilized in Wide Area Networks (WAN).

Please read on routers, types and functions here.

 

3. Campus Area Network (CAN)

As the name implies, a Campus Area Network will typically span over a campus, an educational institution or a large college system.

A CAN connects the different departments within the campus. Also, students may also be connected to the CAN through a secure channel.

Campus Area Network (CAN) - Len Academy

CAN is often considered as a network of multiple interconnected LAN. This implies that several interconnected LANs within a campus will give rise to a CAN. This is quite different from a Metropolitan Area Network whose interconnected LANs are within a metropolis or city.

The Campus Area Network is always bigger than a Local Area Network but smaller than a Metropolitan Area Network

You can read on application layer of the OSI model here.

 

4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A Metropolitan Area Network covers a large geographical area, usually a metropolis or even an entire city. It comprises of Local Area Networks (LANs) within a metropolis or city.

An instance of a MAN is seen when a bank has numerous branches in a metropolis or city, with all branches connecting to the headquarter (HQ) present within the same city. In this instance, the network connecting the branches to its headquarters within that metropolis (or city) is termed a Metropolitan Area Network.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - Len Academy

Also, the military forces within a state can also make use of MAN for their network communications.

Please read on some top programming languages to learn here.

 

5. Wide Area Network (WAN)

A Wide Area Network is much larger than all the aforementioned types of network. The internet itself is classified as a WAN.

The WAN spans over a large area and even the entire globe through some advance technologies that utilizes high speed routers and switches, cellular networks, satellite links and fibre optic cables that can run between continents.

You can think of a WAN as a network that connects all public networks on the internet. In this regard, you are able to access Google's network, Facebook's network, Amazon's network and other public networks on the internet through the WAN.

Wide Area Network (WAN) - Len Academy

Please read on the internet and world wide web here.

Your service provider will often charge you for data which will be used to access the WAN. The WAN enables you access information from other computers (called servers) scattered around the world.

Examples of Wide Area Network includes :

  • Mobile Broadband: This comes in the form of 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G.
  • Last Mile: It’s considered a telecom company that provides internet services to its customers.
  • Private Networks: They are used by very large corporate institutions that are involved with the transfer of heavy financial data within and outside the country. A private network may come in the form of a Telephone Leased Line or MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching).

 

Note: Apart from the geographical classification of network, computer networks can also be classified based on its design.

The two main form of networks based on designs are:

  1. Client / Server Network

  2. Peer to Peer Network

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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.


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NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT

Computer Network is a group of computers that are linked to each other such that they can share resources.

Generally, these groups of computers that form a network are called nodes.

Some of these nodes will function to store information which will be served to other computers. The nodes that function to store and serve such information are known as servers.

Some of the computers (nodes) will request information from the server. The computers that functions to request information from the server are known as clients.

Please read on computer networks here

The internet and the world wide web (www) isn't the same thing.

The internet is formed from the joining or linking of different networks.

For instance, Google's network, Facebook's network and Yahoo's network are among the many other networks that make up the internet.

World Wide Web on the other hand is a collection of linked pages (for instance, this page you're on).

There are actually billions of linked pages in various servers around the world.

You require the internet and a web browser to get to access the World Wide Web

Please read more on the internet here

Types of Networks based on geographical size

  1. Personal Area Network (PAN): An instance is a Bluetooth connection between two devices.

  2. Local Area Network (LAN): This is the network under a single administrative control and usually within a building.

  3. Campus Area Network (CAN): This network connects various devices within a campus or college

  4. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This network connects two offices or companies within a city.

  5. Wide Area Network (WAN): This network connects devices throughout the globe. The internet is a typical example of a WAN.

You can read more on the types of network based on geographical size here

Functions of a router:

  1. They ensure that data (preferably called packets) make it to their intended destination.
  2. They ensure the security of data to some extent.
  3. When a network becomes too big within a Local Area Network (LAN), routers are used to separate such networks.
  4. They connect different networks. This is the very reason why you are able to access the internet. (The internet's network and your service provider's network are different; but thanks to the router for connecting them).
  5. Multiple devices in the home or office can access the internet through the router, (and with a single IP Address). The term associated with this process is referred to a Network Address Translation (NAT)

Please read on types and functions of router here