Geography

Characteristics of Igneous Rock

len Alfred Ajibola - 19th June, 2022 @ 04:02 PM

Topics in Geography

Environmental geography explained with its branches Igneous rock explained with its types and textures Characteristics of Igneous Rock What are Sedimentary Rocks? Formation and Types of Sedimentary Rock Characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Types and Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Physical geography explained with its branches Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, First Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Second Term Geography Scheme of Work, SS1, Third Term Classification and types of planets with their characteristics Planets of the solar system explained with their characteristics Functions of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Solar System in Geography Composition of the Atmosphere Human geography explained with its branches What are metamorphic rocks? Formation of metamorphic rock?


Academic Questions in Geography

Please click here to see all Questions and Answers

Which of the following is not a branch of environmental geography?

  • A. Physical Geography

  • B. Hazards

  • C. Political Ecology

  • D. Environmental Perception

  • E. Landscape Studies

  • F. Energy and Resource Geography

Sandstone is an example of _____ ​​​​​​.

  • A. Sandy soil

  • B. Loamy soil

  • C. Clay soil

  • D. Igneous rock

  • E. Sedimentary rock 

  • F. Metamorphic rock

Which of the following isn't an example of metamorphic rock?

  • A. Schist

  • B. Quartzite

  • C. Gabbro

  • D. Marble

  • E. Slate

  • F. Serpentinite

Which of the following statements is false concerning metamorphic rock?

  • A. The are less dense than igneous and sedimentary rocks

  • B. They can be foliated or non foliated

  • C. They are crystalline in nature

  • D. They have a more coarse texture than their protolith

  • E. They may be formed from an older metamorphic rock

  • F. They are characterized with precious metals and stones

Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.

  • A. 147

  • B. 85

  • C. 40

  • D. 220

  • E. 309

  • F. 400

Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?

  • A. Economic Geography

  • B. Religious Geography

  • C. Social Geography

  • D. Resource Geography

  • E. Settlement Geography

  • F. Industrial Geography

Water resource geography is a branch under physiography.

  • A. True

  • B. False

With regards to ozone, which of the following is incorrect?

  • A. Ozone is a triatomic molecule

  • B. Ozone layer aids in preventing excess ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth

  • C. Ozone is a natural greenhouses gas

  • D. Ozone comprises of oxygen molecules only

  • E. Ozone layer brings about a global warming on earth

  • F. Ozone is present in the stratosphere



Characteristics of Igneous Rock:

Igneous rocks can be defined as rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of molten substances called magma or lava either below the earth (crust) or on the surface of the earth. Magma can be derived from melting of existing rocks on the earth crust.


The solidification of magma into igneous rock may be below the earth's surface (intrusive) or on the earth's surface (extrusive), thus giving rise to the two types of igneous rock.

Please read the introduction to igneous rock and its types here.


Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite and gabbro. They are shown in the image below:

Len Academy

Please read on metamorphic rock and its formation here.


Below are the characteristics or features of igneous rocks:


  1. Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava either below the earth or on its surface.

  2. About 95% of igneous rocks are present below the earth (earth crust) while 15% are found on the surface of the earth.
    Please read the introduction to sedimentary rock here.

  3. They have variations in texture, that is: size, shape and crystal arrangement. This is dependent on the rate and place of cooling or solidification of magmas.

  4. Igneous rocks have no form of fossil deposits within them as a result of massive heat they produce during eruption. This massive heat evolved alongside its formation eventually destroy the remains of plants or animals (fossils).

  5. Igneous rocks are generally hard rocks permitting very little or no water percolation into it. However, understand that igneous rock may become soft from exposure to environmental conditions over a long period of time. An example is basalt.
    Please read on the types and characteristics of metamorphic rock here.

  6. Igneous rocks are granular (or crystalline) and hard in nature.

  7. Unlike sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks have no strata. Meanwhile, understand that when the flow of lava occur in several phases, different layers of lavas are deposited with their solidification stacking up upon one another. These are called layers of lavas and not strata.
    Please read on the characteristics of sedimentary rock here.

  8. Since igneous rocks are typically associated with volcanic activities, they are therefore referred to volcanic rocks. In fact, they are always found in volcanic zones.

  9. The number of joints in igneous rocks increases in the upward direction. However, these joints often contain minerals which increases the hardness of the rock, thus making them resistant to weathering.
    You can read on the solar system here.

  10. The texture of igneous rocks can be fine grained, coarse grained or glassy depending on the rate of magma solidification. In this regard, if the magma cools and solidifies at a very slow rate inside the earth, coarse grained rock will be formed. Conversely, if the magma solidifies as soon as it reaches the earth, finely grained crystals will be formed.

  11. They typically do not react with acids.
    Please read on the physical and chemical properties of acids here.

  12. Igneous rocks are less affected by chemical weathering since water barely penetrates the rock. However, basalt is an igneous rock that is easily weathered through frequent contact with water. With regards to coarse grained igneous rocks, they are affected by physical (or mechanical) weathering.

  13. Most igneous rocks contain various mineral deposits which occurs in patches with varying sizes.

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Amazing facts in Geography

Lake Baikal - Len Academy

Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is located in Siberia, and has a depth of 5,315 feet (1,620 meters)

River Nile is the world's longest river, reaching a length of 6,853km. It runs through the borders of 11 African countries. These are Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea

The deepest place on Earth is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. It has a dept of 11,034 meters (or 36,201 feet)

Japan has recorded the most earthquakes and is thereby considered as the world's most earthquake-prone country

The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have no solid surfaces, but are rather made up of gases. For this reason, humans can never stand on them

Burg Khalifa - Len Academy

Burg Khalifa is the tallest building in the world (as at 2023). It is situated in Dubai and stands at over 2,700 feet

Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier is a pink colored lake present in Australia

Pepto Bismol-colored Lake Hillier - Len Academy

Mount Everest is the highest point on earth with a height of 8,849 meters (29,032 feet). It is located between Nepal and Tibet, an autonomous region of China.

Mountain Everest is a symbol of relationship between Nepal and Tibet, and was named in the nineteenth century after George Everest, a former Surveyor General of India

A day on planet venus is longer than a year. This is so because it takes venus 243 'earth days' to spin round its axis (rotation), but takes 225 'earth days' to go around the sun (revolution).

In geography, understand that a day is reached when the planet makes a full spin or rotation round it's axis. However, a year is reached when a planet revolves fully around the sun

The Four Corners is a location in the United States of Ameria where one can stand in four states simultaneously (at the same time). The states are: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

On the Four Corners, a person stands on the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico at once.


Notable points in Geography

Planets can be categorized based on their composition. These include:

1. Terrestrial or Rocky Planets: They are mercury, venus, earth and mars. They are called terrestrial or rocky planets for the following reasons:

  • They have a rocky and compact surface.

  • They have no rings around them.

  • They have a few natural satellites.

  • They rotate slowly around their axis.

 

2. Gas or Jovian Planets: They include jupiter, saturn, uranus and neptune. They have the following features:

  • They are called jovian planets because they are bigger in size when compared to earth.

  • They are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gas, hence the name 'gas planets' or 'gas giants'.

  • They rotate rapidly.

  • They have many satellites.

  • They have rings around them.

Please read more on the classification of planets here.

Planets of the Solar System - Len Academy

The following rules are required for a body to become classified (or regarded) as a planet:

  • It must orbit the sun.

  • It does not orbit another planet. This means that it must not be a satellite.

  • It must have sufficient mass which accounts for its self-gravity.

  • It must assume a nearly round shape.

Please read on the planets of the solar system here.

Earth's atmosphere is extremely important for the survival of all its inhabitants. As a student, it is important you comprehend how the above functions of the atmosphere support life. The explanations below give credence to this fact.

When one moves further away from earth, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it disappears into the outer space. There is no atmosphere in space. For this reason, astronauts will always wear a spacesuit while carrying along their oxygen gas masks and canisters when in space.

People living on very high altitudes will likely experience a reduced amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Such people survive because their bodily organs become adapted to survive in such conditions.

On mountain everest for instance, mountain climbers will need to carry oxygen canisters because lesser amount of oxygen is present on this mountain.

Please read more on the functions of the atmosphere here

The interface forming the boundary between two atmospheric layers are always named with a 'pause' at its end; for instance;

  • Tropopause: This is the interface or boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

  • Stratopause: Interface between the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  • Mesopause: Interface between the mesosphere and ionosphere.

  • Ionopause: Interface between the ionosphere and thermosphere.

The atmosphere surrounding the earth is layered. Each layer has its own characteristics although the boundaries between them are not clearly defined.

The image below shows the different layers of the atmosphere:

Layers of the Atmosphere - Len Academy

Please read more on the layers of the atmosphere here.