Government

Types of Government

len Alfred Ajibola - 24th June, 2022 @ 02:34 PM

Topics in Government

Political power: Sources of political power Concept of power in government Functions of the executive arm of government Facts on Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy One-party system explained with its advantages and disadvantages What is Democracy? Definitions of Democracy Types of Government Functions of the Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System What are pressure groups? Types of pressure group Characteristics of Pressure Group Types of Constitution Scope of Government Characteristics of Government Importance of Government One-party system explained with its types and characteristics


Academic Questions in Government

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Which of the following is not a function of government?

  • A. Government provides all the jobs in the country they govern

  • B. Government empowers the less privilege and the physically challenged

  • C. Government provides a support system for the aged

  • D. Government provides infrastructure for her citizens

  • E. Government maintains external relations with other countries

  • F. Government generates revenue for the country they govern

In government, a type of one-party system whereby a single party is officially and legally recognized in a country or state is termed a _____.

  • A. Hegemonic Party

  • B. Pre-Dominant Party

  • C. Dominant Party

  • D. True Single-State

  • E. Unique-Ordered State

  • F. State-Exclusive Party

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the multi-party system?

  • A. There is an existence of several parties differing in principles and fundamentals.

  • B. The political parties are legally recognized.

  • C. It is democratic in nature.

  • D. Among the various parties, only one dominates the political landscape.

  • E. Some of the opposition parties can become politically insignificant.

  • F. It promotes the coalition of governments.

In a two-party system,  only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.

  • A. True

  • B. False

On February 25, 2023; Nigeria as a country had its presidential election. The party system involved in this election is the _____.

  • A. Zero Party System

  • B. One-Party System

  • C. Two-Party System

  • D. Multi-Party System

  • E. APC, PDP and LP Party System

  • F. Coalition Party System

The following countries practice a zero party system except _____.

  • A. Cambodia

  • B. Vatican City

  • C. Bahrain

  • D. Saudi Arabia

  • E. Oman

  • F. Kuwait

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?

  • A. It is democratic in nature

  • B. There isn't a third party

  • C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain

  • D. The president must emerge from one of both parties

  • E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press

  • F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory



Types of Government:

Government is defined as an established institution that manages the affairs and general welfare of the people making up a country or state. Government may also be defined as the processes and methods involved in the formulation, administration and implementation of public policies from a procedure specifically spelt out in the constitution of a country or state.

Please read more on the concept of government here.


Government can exist in different types or forms. As an instance, Nigeria as a country once practiced dictatorship as its form of government. Dictatorship in Nigeria came to an end after the death of general Sani Abacha. However, at the point of writing this article (2022), Nigeria as a nation practices the democratic system of government.


From the above instance, we can categorically state that Nigeria as a nation has practiced two forms of government. Meanwhile, understand that the forms of government may also be termed as 'types' of government'. Below are the types of government:


  1. Dictatorship

  2. Democracy

  3. Meritocracy

  4. Oligarchy

  5. Colonialism

  6. Monarchy

  7. Communism

  8. Federalism

  9. Autocracy

  10. Theocracy

  11. Ecclesiocracy

You can read on pressure groups in Nigeria here.


  • Dictatorship

Dictatorship can either exist in the forms of military or civilian rule.

In military dictatorship, there is no form of election and the nation involved is ruled by the absolute power of one man whom may be referred to as the head of state.

The dictator of a military regime assumes power by coup d'etat which is usually bloody (as lives are lost), although some may be bloodless in certain instances.

The militaty dictator must be a military personnel (an army officer), and will normally defend their rise to power under the claims of corruption by the previous military dictator or democratically elected leader. In this regard, the courts do not exercise their powers in military dictatorship because the leader seems to be above the law.

Please read on the arms of government here.


In 1966, Major General Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi became the first military head of state in Nigeria after he overthrew a democratic and constitutional government headed by the prime minister: Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

In June 1998, General Abdusalam Abubakar became the last military head of state in Nigeria after the death of General Sani Abacha from food poisoning.

General Abdusalam Abubakar honorably handed the mantle of leadership to a democratic system of government in 1999.

Please read on the types of democracy here.


Dictatorship can also be civilian. In this case, absolute power is vested in the hands of a single civilian who may be elected into office.

A typical example of a civilian dictatorship is Adolf Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia and Georgia.

 

  • Democracy

Democracy is a form of government where the power of choosing a leader is vested on the people. According to Abraham Lincoln, it represents a government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Please read more on democracy here.


In democracy, the citizens have the right to vote and be voted for. The citizens are mandated to choose their preferred candidate by voting for them through their political party. In fact, this voting process is considered as one of the fundamental human rights and civic responsibility of every citizen.

Please read on the fundamental human rights here.

No one is above the rule of law in a democratic system. If the election outcome does not reflect the mandate of the people, a court of competent jurisdiction can nullify such election.

Democracy is practiced in Nigeria, United States of America, India and South Africa.

 

  • Meritocracy

This form of government requires that power is vested on individuals who have academic achievements, professional statuses and leadership experience.

In meritocracy, it is assumed that whoever the leaders are, they must be credible and deserving of their office.


In this rule, one who has a doctorate degree in English cannot become the minister of power. This is so because his or her doctorate degree in English has very little or no correlation with electricity and power; rather such person can become the minister of education or something related to their achievement.

Please read on the illiteracy here.

To some extent, meritocracy is practiced in Singapore and it seems to have produced some positive results in the country.

 

  • Oligarchy

Oligarchy is a form of government where the privileged, wealthy, elite and noble men rule over those of lower classes or statuses.

The few wealthy men in oligarchy will often transfer the power to rule unto their children, while the poor continue to serve them.

It is noteworthy that the wealthy, elite and noble men are typically educated and are viewed in high esteem by the common masses.

Please read on self-esteem here.


Aristocracy is sometimes considered to be a type of oligarchy. In aristocracy, the nobles rule the people.

Other types of oligarchy include:

  • Plutocracy: The wealthy rule the people.
  • Technocracy: Technical experts and the educated rule the people.
  • Timocracy: Those with honors rule the people.

  • Theocracy

Theocracy is a type of government whereby God (or gods) is considered as the ruler of the land. An instance of theocracy was practiced by the Israelites in the old testament of the bible. However, the people of Israel (Israelites) requested another form of government by demanding a human king as their ruler; and God indeed honored their request. In this regard, the Israelites moved from a theocratic form of government into monarchy which happens to be another form of government.


In an ideal theocracy, there is always a civil leader who has a very close and personal connection with God (or gods) of their land. A typical example is seen in the book of exodus when Moses, a great leader of the Israelites and under the direct guidance from Yahweh (God), led the people out of Egypt into their promised land. Another instance of theocracy is seen when Prophet Muhammad led and directed the early muslims with prophecies and guidance from Allah himself.

It is noteworthy to state that theocracy is quite different from ecclesiocracy. In summary, a theocratic government requires a personal connection between God and a human leader. The former works through the latter to govern his people.

Please read on colonialism, monarchy, communism, federalism, autocracy and ecclesiocracy here.

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Amazing facts in Government

The shortest war ever lasted for just 38 minutes. This is the Anglo-Zanzibar War in 1896

174 world leaders signed the Paris Agreement on Earth Day in 2016 at the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York. This agreement presents the largest number of countries ever to come together to sign anything on a single day. The agreement aims to combat climate change, accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed to strengthen the global climate effort

United States of America is comprised of fifty states and Washington D.C.

The letter 'q' is not present in any of the American states

White House in Washington has 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms while Buckingham Palace in London has 775 rooms, including 78 bathrooms

Three United States presidents; John Adams (2nd US president), Thomas Jefferson (3rd US president), and James Monroe (5th US president) died on the 4th of July.

Coincidentally, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson also died the same year, and that's 1826.

Abraham Lincoln, the great human emancipator, freedom fighter and 16th American president was popular for the saying:

Government of the people, by the people and for the people

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States of America was a professional wrestler before he assumed the office of the American President. Interestingly, he was only defeated once in his wrestling career


Notable points in Government

Ecclesiocracy is a form of government whereby religious leaders are recognized as the first citizens of a state.

The religious leaders in ecclesiocracy do not proclaim themselves as a direct instrument of divine revelation concerning laws governing the society.

A typical example of ecclesiocracy is seen in Vatican City where the pope presides as the leader of the state. However, the pope does not claim to receive direct revelation from God concerning civil laws.

The grand Ayatollah of Iran (Ali Khamenei) and president of Sudan, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir are also considered as instances of leaders in ecclesiocracy.

It is worthy of note to state that the laws and rules governing the land in ecclesiocracy are based on religious beliefs, thus making it somewhat related to theocracy.

One of the duties of the government is to make laws that govern the society. Without laws, some of the rich may oppress the poor. Similarly, some of the highly placed in the society may end up oppressing the weak without being brought to justice.

The absence of government in a society, country, nation, state or community is referred to as anarchy.

An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator name Said Barre was overthrown. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.

Please read on the forms of government here

Below are some of the functions of government:

  • It is the role of the government to protect and defend the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

  • The government maintains law and order through the law enforcement agencies. These will include the police, customs officers and other local securities.

  • It is the duty of the government to generate revenue. This can be achieved through foreign trade.

  • It is the responsibility of the government to maintain external relations with other countries. For this reason, the president may visit other countries for business and bilateral trade purposes. Similarly, other presidents may visit your country in this regard.

  • Please read on the functions of government here

Government can be defined under the following headings:

1. As an institution of a state.

Government is defined as an institution, agency, machinery or instrument that is established to manage the affairs of general welfare of the people making up a state or country

 

2. As a process or as an act of governing.

Government is defined as the processes and methods involved in the formulation, administration and implementation of public policies from a procedure which had been specifically spelt out in the constitution of a country or state

 

3. As an academic field of study.

Government is defined as the study of institutions, theories, ideas, values and doctrines as relating to the acquisition and use of political power for the welfare of the people

Please read more on the definitions of government here

End Sars - Len Academy

The End Sars is considered a pressure group in Nigeria. It campaigned in the interest of Nigerian youths, thus forcing the Nigerian government into scrapping the Special Anti-Robbery Squard (SARS) who had constantly brutalized Nigerians, especially the youths; through extortion, indiscriminate shootings, threats and other violent conducts.

Unfortunately, some Nigerian youths paid the ultimate price with their lives at the Lekki tollgate massacre. This happened on the 20th day of October, 2020.

Burna Boy, a Nigerian musician made a song titled '20 : 10 : 20' in this regard.

Please read on pressure groups in Nigeria here